PGK1/YCR012W Summary Help

Standard Name PGK1
Systematic Name YCR012W
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description 3-phosphoglycerate kinase; catalyzes transfer of high-energy phosphoryl groups from the acyl phosphate of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate to ADP to produce ATP; key enzyme in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis (1, 2 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description 3-PhosphoGlycerate Kinase
Chromosomal Location
ChrIII:137746 to 138996 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Genetic position: 2 cM
Gene Ontology Annotations All PGK1 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for PGK1
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Regulators 29 genes
Classical genetics
Large-scale survey
reduction of function
99 total interaction(s) for 82 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 58
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 7
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 6
  • PCA: 7
  • Protein-RNA: 8
  • Reconstituted Complex: 2

Genetic Interactions
  • Dosage Rescue: 2
  • Negative Genetic: 7
  • Positive Genetic: 1
  • Synthetic Rescue: 1

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 416
Molecular Weight (Da) 44,738
Isoelectric Point (pI) 7.77
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrIII:137746 to 138996 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Genetic position: 2 cM
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 2000-09-13
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..1251 137746..138996 2011-02-03 2000-09-13
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | E.C. | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000000605

Glycolysis is the lysis, or splitting, of one molecule of glucose into two molecules of pyruvate, producing a net gain of two ATP molecules. Pyruvate can then be used in anaerobic (fermentation) or aerobic (respiration) metabolism. The glycolysis pathway and the genes involved are illustrated here.

During glycolysis, Pgk1p (3-phosphoglycerate kinase) catalyzes the transfer of a high-energy phosphoryl group from the acyl phosphate of 1,3-diphosphoglycerate to ADP to produce ATP. Pgk1p also catalyzes the reverse reaction during gluconeogenesis wherein 3-phosphoglycerate and ATP are converted to 1,3-diphosphoglycerate and ADP (2, 3). The reversible reaction is catalyzed in the presence of magnesium ions.

Gluconeogenesis is the process whereby glucose is synthesized from non-carbohydrate precursors, which enables yeast cells to grow on non-sugar carbon sources like ethanol, glycerol, or peptone. The reactions of gluconeogenesis, shown here, mediate conversion of pyruvate to glucose, which is the opposite of glycolysis, the formation of pyruvate from glucose. While these two pathways have several reactions in common, they are not the exact reverse of each other. As the glycolytic enzymes phosphofructokinase (Pfk1p, Pfk2p) and pyruvate kinase (Cdc19p) only function in the forward direction, the gluconeogenesis pathway replaces those steps with the enzymes pyruvate carboxylase (Pyc1p, Pyc2p) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1p)-generating oxaloacetate as an intermediate from pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate-and also the enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fbp1p) (reviewed in 4). Overall, the gluconeogenic reactions convert two molecules of pyruvate to a molecule of glucose, with the expenditure of six high-energy phosphate bonds, four from ATP and two from GTP.

Pgk1p is composed of two structurally similar domains linked by a helical hinge that also interact through a C-terminal helix (5). Purification of Pgk1p from a variety of organisms indicates that it has been highly conserved throughout evolution (6).

PGK1 is abundantly expressed in cells growing in glucose, and transcription is increased by heat shock (7). In contrast, mRNA levels are low in cells grown in pyruvate, acetate, or lactate, although the message stability is not affected by the carbon source (8, 9). Transcription is activated by the transcription factors Rap1p, Abf1p, and Reb1p, which each bind to sequences in the PGK1 promoter (8, 10). Because PGK1 is a highly-expressed gene and its mRNA is relatively stable, it has been the subject of a large number of studies on mRNA stability and decay, codon bias, and protein structure, folding, and kinetics (see Literature Guide for a complete listing).

Last updated: 2005-07-22 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for PGK1
1) Blake CC and Rice DW  (1981) Phosphoglycerate kinase. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 293(1063):93-104
2) Hitzeman RA, et al.  (1980) Isolation and characterization of the yeast 3-phosphoglycerokinase gene (PGK) by an immunological screening technique. J Biol Chem 255(24):12073-80
3) Lam KB and Marmur J  (1977) Isolation and characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycolytic pathway mutants. J Bacteriol 130(2):746-9
4) Klein CJ, et al.  (1998) Glucose control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the role of Mig1 in metabolic functions. Microbiology 144 ( Pt 1)():13-24
5) Watson HC, et al.  (1982) Sequence and structure of yeast phosphoglycerate kinase. EMBO J 1(12):1635-40
6) Fifis T and Scopes RK  (1978) Purification of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase from diverse sources by affinity elution chromatography. Biochem J 175(1):311-9
7) Piper PW, et al.  (1986) Transcription of the phosphoglycerate kinase gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases when fermentative cultures are stressed by heat-shock. Eur J Biochem 161(3):525-31
8) Chambers A, et al.  (1989) Transcriptional control of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PGK gene by RAP1. Mol Cell Biol 9(12):5516-24
9) Moore PA, et al.  (1991) Yeast glycolytic mRNAs are differentially regulated. Mol Cell Biol 11(10):5330-7
10) Packham EA, et al.  (1996) The multifunctional transcription factors Abf1p, Rap1p and Reb1p are required for full transcriptional activation of the chromosomal PGK gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet 250(3):348-56