TDH3/YGR192C Summary Help

Standard Name TDH3 1
Systematic Name YGR192C
Alias GLD1 , HSP35 , HSP36 , SSS2
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), isozyme 3; involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis; tetramer that catalyzes the reaction of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1,3 bis-phosphoglycerate; detected in the cytoplasm and cell wall; GAPDH-derived antimicrobial peptides secreted by S. cerevisiae are active against a wide variety of wine-related yeasts and bateria; TDH3 has a paralog, TDH2, that arose from the whole genome duplication (1, 2, 3, 4 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description Triose-phosphate DeHydrogenase 1
Gene Product Alias GAPDH 5 , GPD
Chromosomal Location
ChrVII:883810 to 882812 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Note: this feature is encoded on the Crick strand.
Gene Ontology Annotations All TDH3 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for TDH3
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Regulators 22 genes
Classical genetics
Large-scale survey
193 total interaction(s) for 153 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 102
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 9
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 3
  • Co-fractionation: 1
  • Co-purification: 2
  • PCA: 2
  • Reconstituted Complex: 1
  • Two-hybrid: 5

Genetic Interactions
  • Dosage Rescue: 2
  • Negative Genetic: 50
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 2
  • Positive Genetic: 4
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 3
  • Synthetic Lethality: 6
  • Synthetic Rescue: 1

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 332
Molecular Weight (Da) 35,746
Isoelectric Point (pI) 6.96
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrVII:883810 to 882812 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Note: this feature is encoded on the Crick strand.
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..999 883810..882812 2011-02-03 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | E.C. | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000003424

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a tetramer catalyzing the reaction of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate to 1,3 bis-phosphoglycerate. Three unlinked genes, TDH1, TDH2, and TDH3, encode related but not identical polypeptides that form catalytically active homotetramers with different specific activities (1, 2). Interestingly, these catalytically active enzymes are found in the cytoplasm and cell wall. Tdh2p and Tdh3p are detected in exponentially growing cells whereas Tdh1p is primarily detected during stationary phase (5). Therefore, it has been suggested, but not confirmed, that Tdh1p may be involved in a process other than glycolysis because it is synthesized by cells in stationary phase (6).

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity is also required during gluconeogenesis, which is the process whereby glucose is synthesized from non-carbohydrate precursors, enabling yeast cells to grow on ethanol, glycerol, or peptone.

The reactions of gluconeogenesis, shown here, mediate conversion of pyruvate to glucose, which is the opposite of glycolysis, the formation of pyruvate from glucose. While these two pathways have several reactions in common, they are not the exact reverse of each other. As the glycolytic enzymes phosphofructokinase (Pfk1p, Pfk2p) and pyruvate kinase (Cdc19p) only function in the forward direction, the gluconeogenesis pathway replaces those steps with the enzymes pyruvate carboxylase (Pyc1p, Pyc2p) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pck1p) -generating oxaloacetate as an intermediate from pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate- and also the enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Fbp1p) (reviewed in 7). Overall, the gluconeogenic reactions convert two molecules of pyruvate to a molecule of glucose, with the expenditure of six high-energy phosphate bonds, four from ATP and two from GTP.

The TDH3 promoter is often referred to as the GPD promoter, which is used in the p4XX series of expression vectors (8).

Last updated: 2005-06-17 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for TDH3
1) McAlister L and Holland MJ  (1985) Isolation and characterization of yeast strains carrying mutations in the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes. J Biol Chem 260(28):15013-8
2) McAlister L and Holland MJ  (1985) Differential expression of the three yeast glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes. J Biol Chem 260(28):15019-27
3) Byrne KP and Wolfe KH  (2005) The Yeast Gene Order Browser: combining curated homology and syntenic context reveals gene fate in polyploid species. Genome Res 15(10):1456-61
4) Branco P, et al.  (2014) Identification of novel GAPDH-derived antimicrobial peptides secreted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and involved in wine microbial interactions. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98(2):843-53
5) Delgado ML, et al.  (2001) The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase polypeptides encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae TDH1, TDH2 and TDH3 genes are also cell wall proteins. Microbiology 147(Pt 2):411-7
6) Boucherie H, et al.  (1995) Differential synthesis of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase polypeptides in stressed yeast cells. FEMS Microbiol Lett 125(2-3):127-33
7) Klein CJ, et al.  (1998) Glucose control in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the role of Mig1 in metabolic functions. Microbiology 144 ( Pt 1)():13-24
8) Mumberg D, et al.  (1995) Yeast vectors for the controlled expression of heterologous proteins in different genetic backgrounds. Gene 156(1):119-22