SNF2/YOR290C Summary Help

Standard Name SNF2 1, 2
Systematic Name YOR290C
Alias GAM1 3 , HAF1 4 , SWI2 5 , TYE3 6 , 7
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex; involved in transcriptional regulation; contains DNA-stimulated ATPase activity; functions interdependently in transcriptional activation with Snf5p and Snf6p (8, 9 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description Sucrose NonFermenting 1, 10
Chromosomal Location
ChrXV:860258 to 855147 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Note: this feature is encoded on the Crick strand.
Gene Ontology Annotations All SNF2 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for SNF2
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Regulators 4 genes
Classical genetics
reduction of function
Large-scale survey
296 total interaction(s) for 143 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 94
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 3
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 33
  • Biochemical Activity: 2
  • Co-crystal Structure: 2
  • Co-localization: 14
  • Co-purification: 34
  • PCA: 3
  • Reconstituted Complex: 9
  • Two-hybrid: 12

Genetic Interactions
  • Dosage Rescue: 7
  • Negative Genetic: 3
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 12
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 10
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 28
  • Synthetic Lethality: 20
  • Synthetic Rescue: 10

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 1,703
Molecular Weight (Da) 194,050
Isoelectric Point (pI) 6.99
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrXV:860258 to 855147 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Note: this feature is encoded on the Crick strand.
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..5112 860258..855147 2011-02-03 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | E.C. | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000005816

Snf2p is the catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF complex and is required both for ATP hydrolysis and for coupling the energy from ATP hydrolysis to that required for ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling (11, 12, 13, 14, 15). Snf2p is necessary for the structural integrity of the SWI/SNF complex (16), and for Ty transcription (17), and appears to be required for both rDNA and telomeric silencing (18). Snf2p is in close proximity to DNA in SWI/SNF-nucleosome complexes (19) and contains an AT-hook, which is a small DNA-binding motif that may act as a versatile minor groove tether (20). Domain 1 of Snf2p is required for interaction with SWI/SNF component Snf11p (21), and the V motif in Snf2p is required to couple ATP hydrolysis to chromatin remodeling, and may play a role in nucleosomal substrate recognition (15). Snf2p may also function as a direct repressor of SER3 transcription since Snf2p appears to be physically associated with the SER3 promoter and is the only SWI/SNF component that is strongly required for repression of SER3 (22).

snf2 null mutants are viable but defective in sporulation, mating-type switching, and the derepression of SUC2 transcription, and also display slow growth on nonfermentable carbon sources, disrupted nucleosome positioning at various gene promoters, reduced sensitivity to gamma-rays, increased sensitivity to ethidium bromide, increased rates of mitochondrial drug resistance, and reduced rDNA silencing, rDNA recombination, and telomeric silencing (18, 5, 23, 3, 1, 2, 24, 11, 25, 26). snf2 null mutations are synthetically lethal with dst1 null mutations in some genetic backgrounds (27).

Snf2p is the founding member of the Snf2p subfamily of proteins, which is part of the nucleic acid-dependent ATPase and helicase superfamily (15). Although several family members have been shown to exhibit DNA-stimulated ATPase activity, no DNA helicase activity has been described for any member of the Snf2 subfamily (16). The Snf2p subfamily also includes Rad16p, Rad54p, Mot1p, Sth1p, Isw2p, Rdh54p, Uls1p, Ino80p, Rad5p, Chd1p, Isw1p, Spt20p, Swr1p, Yfr038wp, Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rad8p, Drosophila melanogaster BRM, human BRD2 (mutations in which are associated with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy), ERCC6 (mutations in which are associated with type B Cockayne syndrome, Cerebrooculofacioskeletal syndrome and UV-sensitive syndrome), BRG1 (mutations in which are associated with cancer), SMARCD3, SMARCA1, SMARCA2, BTAF1, SRCAP, and proteins in other eukaryotes, bacteria, and viruses (28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 15, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48). Snf2p is also similar Spt7p, human TAF1, and D. melanogaster FSH (49, 30). Snf2p and D. melanogaster BRM are functionally interchangeable (50), and a chimeric protein composed of Snf2p with its ATPase motif replaced with that of human SMARCD3 can correct the slow growth defect of snf2 null mutants (40).

By regulating the structure of chromatin, chromatin remodeling complexes, all of which contain an ATPase as a central motor subunit, perform critical functions in the maintenance, transmission, and expression of eukaryotic genomes. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is involved in DNA replication, stress response, and transcription, and binds DNA nonspecifically, altering nucleosome structure to facilitate binding of transcription factors. For some genes, transcriptional activators are able to target the SWI/SNF complex to upstream activation sequences (UAS) in the promoter. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex family contains two evolutionary conserved subclasses of chromatin remodeling factors, one subfamily includes yeast SWI/SNF, fly BAP, and mammalian BAF, and the other subfamily includes yeast RSC (Remodel the Structure of Chromatin), fly PBAP, and mammalian PBAF (51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 12, 13, 14, 21, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 65, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76).

It appears that some human SWI/SNF subunits act as tumor suppressors and there is also evidence that human SWI/SNF subunits are involved in controlling cell growth via their interaction with other tumor suppressors (77). Expression of adenovirus E1A oncoproteins, which are regulators of cellular and viral transcription, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the function of the SWI/SNF complex, and expression of E1A in wild-type cells leads to a specific loss of SWI/SNF dependent transcription. These results suggest that the SWI/SNF complex is a target of these oncoproteins in mammalian cells and that the disruption of normal cell cycle control by E1A may be due in part to altered activity of the SWI/SNF complex (78).

Last updated: 2006-03-24 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for SNF2
1) Neigeborn L and Carlson M  (1984) Genes affecting the regulation of SUC2 gene expression by glucose repression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 108(4):845-58
2) Abrams E, et al.  (1986) Molecular analysis of SNF2 and SNF5, genes required for expression of glucose-repressible genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 6(11):3643-51
3) Foury F and Goffeau A  (1979) Genetic control of enhanced mutability of mitochondrial DNA and gamma-ray sensitivity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 76(12):6529-33
4) Kuchin SV, et al.  (1993) Genes required for derepression of an extracellular glucoamylase gene, STA2, in the yeast Saccharomyces. Yeast 9(5):533-41
5) Stern M, et al.  (1984) Five SWI genes are required for expression of the HO gene in yeast. J Mol Biol 178(4):853-68
6) Ciriacy M, et al.  (1991) Characterization of trans-acting mutations affecting Ty and Ty-mediated transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Curr Genet 20(6):441-8
7) Ciriacy M and Williamson VM  (1981) Analysis of mutations affecting Ty-mediated gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Gen Genet 182(1):159-63
8) Laurent BC, et al.  (1993) The yeast SNF2/SWI2 protein has DNA-stimulated ATPase activity required for transcriptional activation. Genes Dev 7(4):583-91
9) Peterson CL and Tamkun JW  (1995) The SWI-SNF complex: a chromatin remodeling machine? Trends Biochem Sci 20(4):143-6
10) Carlson M, et al.  (1981) Mutants of yeast defective in sucrose utilization. Genetics 98(1):25-40
11) Peterson CL and Herskowitz I  (1992) Characterization of the yeast SWI1, SWI2, and SWI3 genes, which encode a global activator of transcription. Cell 68(3):573-83
12) Cairns BR, et al.  (1994) A multisubunit complex containing the SWI1/ADR6, SWI2/SNF2, SWI3, SNF5, and SNF6 gene products isolated from yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91(5):1950-4
13) Cote J, et al.  (1994) Stimulation of GAL4 derivative binding to nucleosomal DNA by the yeast SWI/SNF complex. Science 265(5168):53-60
14) Peterson CL, et al.  (1994) Five SWI/SNF gene products are components of a large multisubunit complex required for transcriptional enhancement. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91(8):2905-8
15) Smith CL and Peterson CL  (2005) A conserved Swi2/Snf2 ATPase motif couples ATP hydrolysis to chromatin remodeling. Mol Cell Biol 25(14):5880-92
16) Richmond E and Peterson CL  (1996) Functional analysis of the DNA-stimulated ATPase domain of yeast SWI2/SNF2. Nucleic Acids Res 24(19):3685-92
17) Happel AM, et al.  (1991) The SNF2, SNF5 and SNF6 genes are required for Ty transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 128(1):69-77
18) Dror V and Winston F  (2004) The Swi/Snf chromatin remodeling complex is required for ribosomal DNA and telomeric silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 24(18):8227-35
19) Sengupta SM, et al.  (2001) The interactions of yeast SWI/SNF and RSC with the nucleosome before and after chromatin remodeling. J Biol Chem 276(16):12636-44
20) Aravind L and Landsman D  (1998) AT-hook motifs identified in a wide variety of DNA-binding proteins. Nucleic Acids Res 26(19):4413-21
21) Treich I, et al.  (1995) SNF11, a new component of the yeast SNF-SWI complex that interacts with a conserved region of SNF2. Mol Cell Biol 15(8):4240-8
22) Riego L, et al.  (2002) GDH1 expression is regulated by GLN3, GCN4, and HAP4 under respiratory growth. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 293(1):79-85
23) Backer J and Foury F  (1985) Repair properties in yeast mitochondrial DNA mutators. Curr Genet 10(1):7-13
24) Yoshimoto H and Yamashita I  (1991) The GAM1/SNF2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a highly charged nuclear protein required for transcription of the STA1 gene. Mol Gen Genet 228(1-2):270-80
25) Jiang YW and Stillman DJ  (1995) Regulation of HIS4 expression by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SIN4 transcriptional regulator. Genetics 140(1):103-14
26) Wu L and Winston F  (1997) Evidence that Snf-Swi controls chromatin structure over both the TATA and UAS regions of the SUC2 promoter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res 25(21):4230-4
27) Davie JK and Kane CM  (2000) Genetic interactions between TFIIS and the Swi-Snf chromatin-remodeling complex. Mol Cell Biol 20(16):5960-73
28) Bang DD, et al.  (1992) Molecular cloning of RAD16, a gene involved in differential repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res 20(15):3925-31
29) Davis JL, et al.  (1992) A presumptive helicase (MOT1 gene product) affects gene expression and is required for viability in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 12(4):1879-92
30) Haynes SR, et al.  (1992) The bromodomain: a conserved sequence found in human, Drosophila and yeast proteins. Nucleic Acids Res 20(10):2603
31) Mannhaupt G, et al.  (1992) Molecular analysis of yeast chromosome II between CMD1 and LYS2: the excision repair gene RAD16 located in this region belongs to a novel group of double-finger proteins. Yeast 8(5):397-408
32) Poirey R, et al.  (1997) Sequence and analysis of a 36.2 kb fragment from the right arm of yeast chromosome XV reveals 19 open reading frames including SNF2 (5' end), CPA1, SLY41, a putative transport ATPase, a putative ribosomal protein and an SNF2 homologue. Yeast 13(5):479-82
33) Shinohara M, et al.  (1997) Characterization of the roles of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RAD54 gene and a homologue of RAD54, RDH54/TID1, in mitosis and meiosis. Genetics 147(4):1545-56
34) Zhang Z and Buchman AR  (1997) Identification of a member of a DNA-dependent ATPase family that causes interference with silencing. Mol Cell Biol 17(9):5461-72
35) Ebbert R, et al.  (1999) The product of the SNF2/SWI2 paralogue INO80 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae required for efficient expression of various yeast structural genes is part of a high-molecular-weight protein complex. Mol Microbiol 32(4):741-51
36) Doe CL, et al.  (1993) Cloning and characterisation of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe rad8 gene, a member of the SNF2 helicase family. Nucleic Acids Res 21(25):5964-71
37) Robinson KM and Schultz MC  (2003) Replication-independent assembly of nucleosome arrays in a novel yeast chromatin reconstitution system involves antisilencing factor Asf1p and chromodomain protein Chd1p. Mol Cell Biol 23(22):7937-46
38) Krogan NJ, et al.  (2003) A Snf2 family ATPase complex required for recruitment of the histone H2A variant Htz1. Mol Cell 12(6):1565-76
39) Okabe I, et al.  (1992) Cloning of human and bovine homologs of SNF2/SWI2: a global activator of transcription in yeast S. cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res 20(17):4649-55
40) Khavari PA, et al.  (1993) BRG1 contains a conserved domain of the SWI2/SNF2 family necessary for normal mitotic growth and transcription. Nature 366(6451):170-4
41) Muchardt C, et al.  (1995) A human protein with homology to Saccharomyces cerevisiae SNF5 interacts with the potential helicase hbrm. Nucleic Acids Res 23(7):1127-32
42) Wu DY, et al.  (1996) Epstein-Barr virus nuclear protein 2 (EBNA2) binds to a component of the human SNF-SWI complex, hSNF5/Ini1. J Virol 70(9):6020-8
43) Chicca JJ 2nd, et al.  (1998) Cloning and biochemical characterization of TAF-172, a human homolog of yeast Mot1. Mol Cell Biol 18(3):1701-10
44) Cai Y, et al.  (2005) The mammalian YL1 protein is a shared subunit of the TRRAP/TIP60 histone acetyltransferase and SRCAP complexes. J Biol Chem 280(14):13665-70
45) Soininen R, et al.  (1992) The mouse Enhancer trap locus 1 (Etl-1): a novel mammalian gene related to Drosophila and yeast transcriptional regulator genes. Mech Dev 39(1-2):111-23
46) Sawa H, et al.  (2000) Components of the SWI/SNF complex are required for asymmetric cell division in C. elegans. Mol Cell 6(3):617-24
47) Kolsto AB, et al.  (1993) Prokaryotic members of a new family of putative helicases with similarity to transcription activator SNF2. J Mol Biol 230(2):684-8
48) Sukhodolets MV and Jin DJ  (1998) RapA, a novel RNA polymerase-associated protein, is a bacterial homolog of SWI2/SNF2. J Biol Chem 273(12):7018-23
49) Laurent BC, et al.  (1992) An essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene homologous to SNF2 encodes a helicase-related protein in a new family. Mol Cell Biol 12(4):1893-902
50) Elfring LK, et al.  (1994) Identification and characterization of Drosophila relatives of the yeast transcriptional activator SNF2/SWI2. Mol Cell Biol 14(4):2225-34
51) Cairns BR, et al.  (1996) RSC, an essential, abundant chromatin-remodeling complex. Cell 87(7):1249-60
52) Poch O and Winsor B  (1997) Who's who among the Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin-related proteins? A classification and nomenclature proposal for a large family. Yeast 13(11):1053-8
53) Peterson CL, et al.  (1998) Subunits of the yeast SWI/SNF complex are members of the actin-related protein (ARP) family. J Biol Chem 273(37):23641-4
54) Harata M, et al.  (2000) Multiple actin-related proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are present in the nucleus. J Biochem 128(4):665-71
55) Chervitz SA, et al.  (1998) Comparison of the complete protein sets of worm and yeast: orthology and divergence. Science 282(5396):2022-8
56) Quinn J, et al.  (1996) DNA-binding properties of the yeast SWI/SNF complex. Nature 379(6568):844-7
57) Owen-Hughes T, et al.  (1996) Persistent site-specific remodeling of a nucleosome array by transient action of the SWI/SNF complex. Science 273(5274):513-6
58) Burns LG and Peterson CL  (1997) The yeast SWI-SNF complex facilitates binding of a transcriptional activator to nucleosomal sites in vivo. Mol Cell Biol 17(8):4811-9
59) Pollard KJ and Peterson CL  (1997) Role for ADA/GCN5 products in antagonizing chromatin-mediated transcriptional repression. Mol Cell Biol 17(11):6212-22
60) Utley RT, et al.  (1997) SWI/SNF stimulates the formation of disparate activator-nucleosome complexes but is partially redundant with cooperative binding. J Biol Chem 272(19):12642-9
61) Bazett-Jones DP, et al.  (1999) The SWI/SNF complex creates loop domains in DNA and polynucleosome arrays and can disrupt DNA-histone contacts within these domains. Mol Cell Biol 19(2):1470-8
62) Neely KE, et al.  (1999) Activation domain-mediated targeting of the SWI/SNF complex to promoters stimulates transcription from nucleosome arrays. Mol Cell 4(4):649-55
63) Natarajan K, et al.  (1999) Transcriptional activation by Gcn4p involves independent interactions with the SWI/SNF complex and the SRB/mediator. Mol Cell 4(4):657-64
64) Steger DJ, et al.  (2003) Regulation of chromatin remodeling by inositol polyphosphates. Science 299(5603):114-6
65) Prochasson P, et al.  (2003) Targeting activity is required for SWI/SNF function in vivo and is accomplished through two partially redundant activator-interaction domains. Mol Cell 12(4):983-90
66) Yoon S, et al.  (2003) Recruitment of SWI/SNF by Gcn4p does not require Snf2p or Gcn5p but depends strongly on SWI/SNF integrity, SRB mediator, and SAGA. Mol Cell Biol 23(23):8829-45
67) Lemieux K and Gaudreau L  (2004) Targeting of Swi/Snf to the yeast GAL1 UAS G requires the Mediator, TAF IIs, and RNA polymerase II. EMBO J 23(20):4040-50
68) Ferreira ME, et al.  (2005) Mechanism of transcription factor recruitment by acidic activators. J Biol Chem 280(23):21779-84
69) Whitehouse I, et al.  (1999) Nucleosome mobilization catalysed by the yeast SWI/SNF complex. Nature 400(6746):784-7
70) Yudkovsky N, et al.  (1999) Recruitment of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex by transcriptional activators. Genes Dev 13(18):2369-74
71) Boyer LA, et al.  (2000) Roles of the histone H2A-H2B dimers and the (H3-H4)(2) tetramer in nucleosome remodeling by the SWI-SNF complex. J Biol Chem 275(16):11545-52
72) Logie C and Peterson CL  (1997) Catalytic activity of the yeast SWI/SNF complex on reconstituted nucleosome arrays. EMBO J 16(22):6772-82
73) Cote J, et al.  (1998) Perturbation of nucleosome core structure by the SWI/SNF complex persists after its detachment, enhancing subsequent transcription factor binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95(9):4947-52
74) Cosma MP, et al.  (1999) Ordered recruitment of transcription and chromatin remodeling factors to a cell cycle- and developmentally regulated promoter. Cell 97(3):299-311
75) Flanagan JF and Peterson CL  (1999) A role for the yeast SWI/SNF complex in DNA replication. Nucleic Acids Res 27(9):2022-8
76) Ganster RW, et al.  (1998) Identification of a calcineurin-independent pathway required for sodium ion stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 150(1):31-42
77) Neely KE and Workman JL  (2002) The complexity of chromatin remodeling and its links to cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta 1603(1):19-29
78) Miller ME, et al.  (1996) Adenovirus E1A specifically blocks SWI/SNF-dependent transcriptional activation. Mol Cell Biol 16(10):5737-43