ARP9/YMR033W Summary Help

Standard Name ARP9 1
Systematic Name YMR033W
Alias SWP59 2 , RSC12 3
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Component of both the SWI/SNF and RSC chromatin remodeling complexes; actin-related protein involved in transcriptional regulation (1, 2, 3 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description Actin-Related Protein 1
Chromosomal Location
ChrXIII:337788 to 339277 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Gene Ontology Annotations All ARP9 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for ARP9
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Regulators 69 genes
Classical genetics
Large-scale survey
220 total interaction(s) for 108 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 113
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 1
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 24
  • Co-crystal Structure: 1
  • Co-purification: 4
  • PCA: 1
  • Reconstituted Complex: 6
  • Two-hybrid: 1

Genetic Interactions
  • Dosage Rescue: 3
  • Negative Genetic: 56
  • Positive Genetic: 4
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 2
  • Synthetic Lethality: 3
  • Synthetic Rescue: 1

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 467
Molecular Weight (Da) 53,074
Isoelectric Point (pI) 4.88
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrXIII:337788 to 339277 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..30 337788..337817 2011-02-03 1996-07-31
Intron 31..116 337818..337903 2011-02-03 1996-07-31
CDS 117..1490 337904..339277 2011-02-03 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000004636

Arp7p and Arp9p are nuclear actin-related proteins that form a stable heterodimer which is an essential component of both the SWI/SNF and RSC chromatin remodeling complexes (4, 1, 5, 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10). The C-termini of Arp7p and Arp9p are both required for association of the Arp7p/Arp9p heterodimer with the RSC complex (10). Genetic analyses indicate that the Arp7p/Arp9p heterodimers may also cooperate with Nhp6ap and Nhp6bp to facilitate proper chromatin architecture (10). Depending on the genetic background tested, arp7 and arp9 null mutants are each either inviable or show greatly impaired growth with mutant phenotypes similar to those seen in snf2 nulls, such as an inability to grow on non-fermentable carbon sources (2, 7, 11, 10). The temperature sensitivity of either arp7 or arp9 conditional mutants is suppressed by the overproduction of Nhp6ap (10).

By regulating the structure of chromatin, chromatin remodeling complexes, all of which contain an ATPase as a central motor subunit, perform critical functions in the maintenance, transmission, and expression of eukaryotic genomes. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex is involved in DNA replication, stress response, and transcription, and binds DNA nonspecifically, altering nucleosome structure to facilitate binding of transcription factors. For some genes, transcriptional activators are able to target the SWI/SNF complex to upstream activation sequences (UAS) in the promoter. The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex family contains two evolutionary conserved subclasses of chromatin remodeling factors, one subfamily includes yeast SWI/SNF, fly BAP, and mammalian BAF, and the other subfamily includes yeast RSC (Remodel the Structure of Chromatin), fly PBAP, and mammalian PBAF (6, 1, 8, 5, 12, 2, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 25, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36).

It appears that some human SWI/SNF subunits act as tumor suppressors and there is also evidence that human SWI/SNF subunits are involved in controlling cell growth via their interaction with other tumor suppressors (37). Expression of adenovirus E1A oncoproteins, which are regulators of cellular and viral transcription, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires the function of the SWI/SNF complex, and expression of E1A in wild-type cells leads to a specific loss of SWI/SNF dependent transcription. These results suggest that the SWI/SNF complex is a target of these oncoproteins in mammalian cells and that the disruption of normal cell cycle control by E1A may be due in part to altered activity of the SWI/SNF complex (38).

Last updated: 2006-03-24 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for ARP9
1) Poch O and Winsor B  (1997) Who's who among the Saccharomyces cerevisiae actin-related proteins? A classification and nomenclature proposal for a large family. Yeast 13(11):1053-8
2) Cairns BR, et al.  (1994) A multisubunit complex containing the SWI1/ADR6, SWI2/SNF2, SWI3, SNF5, and SNF6 gene products isolated from yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91(5):1950-4
3) Cairns BR, et al.  (1999) Two functionally distinct forms of the RSC nucleosome-remodeling complex, containing essential AT hook, BAH, and bromodomains. Mol Cell 4(5):715-23
4) Frankel S and Mooseker MS  (1996) The actin-related proteins. Curr Opin Cell Biol 8(1):30-7
5) Harata M, et al.  (2000) Multiple actin-related proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are present in the nucleus. J Biochem 128(4):665-71
6) Cairns BR, et al.  (1996) RSC, an essential, abundant chromatin-remodeling complex. Cell 87(7):1249-60
7) Cairns BR, et al.  (1998) Two actin-related proteins are shared functional components of the chromatin-remodeling complexes RSC and SWI/SNF. Mol Cell 2(5):639-51
8) Peterson CL, et al.  (1998) Subunits of the yeast SWI/SNF complex are members of the actin-related protein (ARP) family. J Biol Chem 273(37):23641-4
9) Smith CL, et al.  (2003) Structural analysis of the yeast SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex. Nat Struct Biol 10(2):141-5
10) Szerlong H, et al.  (2003) The nuclear actin-related proteins Arp7 and Arp9: a dimeric module that cooperates with architectural proteins for chromatin remodeling. EMBO J 22(12):3175-87
11) Boyer LA and Peterson CL  (2000) Actin-related proteins (Arps): conformational switches for chromatin-remodeling machines? Bioessays 22(7):666-72
12) Chervitz SA, et al.  (1998) Comparison of the complete protein sets of worm and yeast: orthology and divergence. Science 282(5396):2022-8
13) Cote J, et al.  (1994) Stimulation of GAL4 derivative binding to nucleosomal DNA by the yeast SWI/SNF complex. Science 265(5168):53-60
14) Peterson CL, et al.  (1994) Five SWI/SNF gene products are components of a large multisubunit complex required for transcriptional enhancement. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91(8):2905-8
15) Treich I, et al.  (1995) SNF11, a new component of the yeast SNF-SWI complex that interacts with a conserved region of SNF2. Mol Cell Biol 15(8):4240-8
16) Quinn J, et al.  (1996) DNA-binding properties of the yeast SWI/SNF complex. Nature 379(6568):844-7
17) Owen-Hughes T, et al.  (1996) Persistent site-specific remodeling of a nucleosome array by transient action of the SWI/SNF complex. Science 273(5274):513-6
18) Burns LG and Peterson CL  (1997) The yeast SWI-SNF complex facilitates binding of a transcriptional activator to nucleosomal sites in vivo. Mol Cell Biol 17(8):4811-9
19) Pollard KJ and Peterson CL  (1997) Role for ADA/GCN5 products in antagonizing chromatin-mediated transcriptional repression. Mol Cell Biol 17(11):6212-22
20) Utley RT, et al.  (1997) SWI/SNF stimulates the formation of disparate activator-nucleosome complexes but is partially redundant with cooperative binding. J Biol Chem 272(19):12642-9
21) Bazett-Jones DP, et al.  (1999) The SWI/SNF complex creates loop domains in DNA and polynucleosome arrays and can disrupt DNA-histone contacts within these domains. Mol Cell Biol 19(2):1470-8
22) Neely KE, et al.  (1999) Activation domain-mediated targeting of the SWI/SNF complex to promoters stimulates transcription from nucleosome arrays. Mol Cell 4(4):649-55
23) Natarajan K, et al.  (1999) Transcriptional activation by Gcn4p involves independent interactions with the SWI/SNF complex and the SRB/mediator. Mol Cell 4(4):657-64
24) Steger DJ, et al.  (2003) Regulation of chromatin remodeling by inositol polyphosphates. Science 299(5603):114-6
25) Prochasson P, et al.  (2003) Targeting activity is required for SWI/SNF function in vivo and is accomplished through two partially redundant activator-interaction domains. Mol Cell 12(4):983-90
26) Yoon S, et al.  (2003) Recruitment of SWI/SNF by Gcn4p does not require Snf2p or Gcn5p but depends strongly on SWI/SNF integrity, SRB mediator, and SAGA. Mol Cell Biol 23(23):8829-45
27) Lemieux K and Gaudreau L  (2004) Targeting of Swi/Snf to the yeast GAL1 UAS G requires the Mediator, TAF IIs, and RNA polymerase II. EMBO J 23(20):4040-50
28) Ferreira ME, et al.  (2005) Mechanism of transcription factor recruitment by acidic activators. J Biol Chem 280(23):21779-84
29) Whitehouse I, et al.  (1999) Nucleosome mobilization catalysed by the yeast SWI/SNF complex. Nature 400(6746):784-7
30) Yudkovsky N, et al.  (1999) Recruitment of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex by transcriptional activators. Genes Dev 13(18):2369-74
31) Boyer LA, et al.  (2000) Roles of the histone H2A-H2B dimers and the (H3-H4)(2) tetramer in nucleosome remodeling by the SWI-SNF complex. J Biol Chem 275(16):11545-52
32) Logie C and Peterson CL  (1997) Catalytic activity of the yeast SWI/SNF complex on reconstituted nucleosome arrays. EMBO J 16(22):6772-82
33) Cote J, et al.  (1998) Perturbation of nucleosome core structure by the SWI/SNF complex persists after its detachment, enhancing subsequent transcription factor binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95(9):4947-52
34) Cosma MP, et al.  (1999) Ordered recruitment of transcription and chromatin remodeling factors to a cell cycle- and developmentally regulated promoter. Cell 97(3):299-311
35) Flanagan JF and Peterson CL  (1999) A role for the yeast SWI/SNF complex in DNA replication. Nucleic Acids Res 27(9):2022-8
36) Ganster RW, et al.  (1998) Identification of a calcineurin-independent pathway required for sodium ion stress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 150(1):31-42
37) Neely KE and Workman JL  (2002) The complexity of chromatin remodeling and its links to cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta 1603(1):19-29
38) Miller ME, et al.  (1996) Adenovirus E1A specifically blocks SWI/SNF-dependent transcriptional activation. Mol Cell Biol 16(10):5737-43