RPS19A/YOL121C Summary Help

Standard Name RPS19A
Systematic Name YOL121C
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Protein component of the small (40S) ribosomal subunit; required for assembly and maturation of pre-40 S particles; homologous to mammalian ribosomal protein S19, no bacterial homolog; mutations in human RPS19 are associated with Diamond Blackfan anemia; RPS19A has a paralog, RPS19B, that arose from the whole genome duplication (1, 2, 3, 4 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description Ribosomal Protein of the Small subunit
Gene Product Alias S16aA 5 , S19A 5 , S19e 4 , YS16A 5 , rp55a 5
Chromosomal Location
ChrXV:92850 to 92026 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Note: this feature is encoded on the Crick strand.
Gbrowse
Gene Ontology Annotations All RPS19A GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for RPS19A
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Regulators 14 genes
Resources
Classical genetics
null
Large-scale survey
gain of function
null
Resources
34 total interaction(s) for 31 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 18
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 5
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 1
  • Biochemical Activity: 1

Genetic Interactions
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 5
  • Synthetic Lethality: 4

Resources
Expression Summary
histogram
Resources
Length (a.a.) 144
Molecular Weight (Da) 15,917
Isoelectric Point (pI) 10.45
Localization
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
Structure
Homologs
sequence information
ChrXV:92850 to 92026 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Note: this feature is encoded on the Crick strand.
SGD ORF map
Last Update Coordinates: 2006-01-05 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Relative
Coordinates
Chromosomal
Coordinates
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..20 92850..92831 2006-01-05 1996-07-31
Intron 21..410 92830..92441 2006-01-05 1996-07-31
CDS 411..825 92440..92026 2006-01-05 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
Resources
External Links All Associated Seq | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000005481
SUMMARY PARAGRAPH for RPS19A

Rps19 is an essential protein that is required for the biogenesis of the small ribosomal subunit. In yeast, Rps19 is encoded by duplicated genes, RPS19A and RPS19B, which differ from one another by a single amino acid. Disruption of both RPS19 genes is lethal. Disruption of either of the yeast RPS19 genes causes a reduction in growth rate and affects the production of 40 S ribosomal subunits. Rps19 is required for clevage at site A2 within ITS1 and for the maturation of the 3'-end of the 18S rRNA. In addition, Rps19 is necessary for recruitment of the non-ribosomal factors Enp1p, Tsr1p, Rio2p, normally found associated with pre-40 S particles (2).

Rps19 protein belongs to a family of ribosomal proteins restricted to eukaryotes and archaea without a homolog in the eubacterial ribosomes. The yeast Rps19 proteins have over 50% sequence identity with the human S19 (RPS19) protein with blocks of near complete identity. Haploinsufficiency and other S19 mutations in humans have been associated with Diamond-Blackfan Anemia (DBA), which is characterized by severe hypoplastic anemia that generally presents early in infancy and may be accompanied by craniofacial abnormalities, growth failure, predisposition to cancer, and other congenital abnormalities (2, 6, 7).

About yeast ribosomes...

Ribosomes are highly conserved large ribonucleoprotein (RNP) particles, consisting in yeast of a large 60S subunit and a small 40S subunit, that perform protein synthesis. Yeast ribosomes contain one copy each of four ribosomal RNAs (5S, 5.8S, 18S, and 25S; produced in two separate transcripts encoded within the rDNA repeat present as hundreds of copies on Chromosome 12) and 79 different ribosomal proteins (r-proteins), which are encoded by 137 different genes scattered about the genome, 59 of which are duplicated (8, 4). The 60S subunit contains 46 proteins and three RNA molecules: 25S RNA of 3392 nt, hydrogen bonded to the 5.8S RNA of 158 nt and associated with the 5S RNA of 121 nt. The 40S subunit has a single 18S RNA of 1798 nt and 33 proteins (9, 4). All yeast ribosomal proteins have a mammalian homolog (10).

In a rapidly growing yeast cell, 60% of total transcription is devoted to ribosomal RNA, and 50% of RNA polymerase II transcription and 90% of mRNA splicing are devoted to the production of mRNAs for r-proteins. Coordinate regulation of the rRNA genes and 137 r-protein genes is affected by nutritional cues and a number of signal transduction pathways that can abruptly induce or silence the ribosomal genes, whose transcripts have naturally short lifetimes, leading to major implications for the expression of other genes as well (11, 12, 13). The expression of some r-protein genes is influenced by Abf1p (14), and most are directly induced by binding of Rap1p to their promoters, which excludes nucleosomes and recruits Fhl1p and Ifh1p to drive transcription (15).

Ribosome assembly is a complex process, with different steps occurring in different parts of the cell. Ribosomal protein genes are transcribed in the nucleus, and the mRNA is transported to the cytoplasm for translation. The newly synthesized r-proteins then enter the nucleus and associate in the nucleolus with the two rRNA transcripts, one of which is methylated and pseudouridylated (view sites of modifications), and then cleaved into three individual rRNAs (18S, 5.8S, and 25S) as part of the assembly process (8). Separate ribosomal subunits are then transported from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm where they assemble into mature ribosomes before functioning in translation (16, 17). Blockage of subunit assembly, such as due to inhibition of rRNA synthesis or processing, results in degradation of newly synthesized r-proteins (18, 17). (For more information on the early steps of rRNA processing and small ribosomal subunit assembly, see the summary paragraph for the U3 snoRNA, encoded by snR17A and snR17B.)

Last updated: 2007-07-13 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for RPS19A
1) Lecompte O, et al.  (2002) Comparative analysis of ribosomal proteins in complete genomes: an example of reductive evolution at the domain scale. Nucleic Acids Res 30(24):5382-90
2) Leger-Silvestre I, et al.  (2005) Specific Role for Yeast Homologs of the Diamond Blackfan Anemia-associated Rps19 Protein in Ribosome Synthesis. J Biol Chem 280(46):38177-85
3) Byrne KP and Wolfe KH  (2005) The Yeast Gene Order Browser: combining curated homology and syntenic context reveals gene fate in polyploid species. Genome Res 15(10):1456-61
4) Jenner L, et al.  (2012) Crystal structure of the 80S yeast ribosome. Curr Opin Struct Biol 22(6):759-67
5) Planta RJ and Mager WH  (1998) The list of cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast 14(5):471-7
6) Draptchinskaia N, et al.  (1999) The gene encoding ribosomal protein S19 is mutated in Diamond-Blackfan anaemia. Nat Genet 21(2):169-75
7) Willig TN, et al.  (1999) Mutations in ribosomal protein S19 gene and diamond blackfan anemia: wide variations in phenotypic expression. Blood 94(12):4294-306
8) Venema J and Tollervey D  (1999) Ribosome synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Annu Rev Genet 33:261-311
9) Verschoor A, et al.  (1998) Three-dimensional structure of the yeast ribosome. Nucleic Acids Res 26(2):655-61
10) Mager WH, et al.  (1997) A new nomenclature for the cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nucleic Acids Res 25(24):4872-5
11) Li B, et al.  (1999) Transcriptional elements involved in the repression of ribosomal protein synthesis. Mol Cell Biol 19(8):5393-404
12) Zhao Y, et al.  (2003) Autoregulation in the biosynthesis of ribosomes. Mol Cell Biol 23(2):699-707
13) Warner JR  (1999) The economics of ribosome biosynthesis in yeast. Trends Biochem Sci 24(11):437-40
14) Mager WH and Planta RJ  (1990) Multifunctional DNA-binding proteins mediate concerted transcription activation of yeast ribosomal protein genes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1050(1-3):351-5
15) Zhao Y, et al.  (2006) Fine-structure analysis of ribosomal protein gene transcription. Mol Cell Biol 26(13):4853-62
16) Moritz M, et al.  (1990) Depletion of yeast ribosomal proteins L16 or rp59 disrupts ribosome assembly. J Cell Biol 111(6 Pt 1):2261-74
17) Milgrom E, et al.  (2007) Loss of vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase activity in yeast results in chronic oxidative stress. J Biol Chem 282(10):7125-36
18) Wang S, et al.  (2007) Influence of Substrate Conformation on the Deglycosylation of Ribonuclease B by Recombinant Yeast Peptide:N-glycanase. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai) 39(1):8-14