REP2/R0040C Summary Help

Standard Name REP2 1
Systematic Name R0040C
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Master regulator that regulates transcript levels of the FLP1 gene; acts in concert with Rep1p to regulate transcript levels of the FLP1 gene that promotes plasmid copy amplification and 2-micron plasmid-inheritance; also autoregulates levels of its own transcript; required for Rep1p stability; both Rep1p and Rep2p are sumoylated which is important for function (2, 3 and see Summary Paragraph)
Chromosomal Location
2-micron:6198 to 5308 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Note: this feature is encoded on the Crick strand.
Gene Ontology Annotations All REP2 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for REP2
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Length (a.a.) 296
Molecular Weight (Da) 33,196
Isoelectric Point (pI) 9.74
Phosphorylation PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
2-micron:6198 to 5308 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Note: this feature is encoded on the Crick strand.
Last Update Coordinates: 2006-10-06 | Sequence: 2004-02-11
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..891 6198..5308 2006-10-06 2004-02-11
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000029676

The 2-micron plasmid is a relatively small (6318 bp) nuclear multicopy extrachromosomal element found in most common strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Its presence confers no obvious advantage to its host, nor does it appear to impose any disadvantage at its steady-state copy number of 40-60 molecules (4). The plasmid contains 4 protein-coding loci (FLP1, REP1, REP2, RAF1) and 4 cis-acting loci (an origin of replication, a partitioning locus called STB, and 2 Flp Recombination Targets or FRTs) (5).

The 2-micron plasmid propagates itself with chromosome-like stability through the combined action of a plasmid amplification system and a plasmid partitioning system. The amplification system compensates for any copy number decreases caused by missegregation events, and consists of Flp1p along with a pair of 599-bp FRT sites present in the plasmid genome in a head-to-head orientation (6). The partitioning system ensures roughly equal distribution of replicated plasmids to daughter cells by overcoming the normal segregation bias that favors the mother cell over daughters in plasmid retention (6). This system comprises Rep1p, Rep2p, and the partitioning locus STB which consists of two subloci, one containing approximately six iterations of a consensus 65-bp repeat, and another which is involved in maintaining the active configuration of STB and contains the termination site for two transcripts directed toward the plasmid replication origin (6). Multiple copies of the 2-micron plasmid exist as a tight-knit cluster within the nucleus that stays together throughout the cell cycle (7), and this plasmid cluster is the segregation entity, effectively reducing copy number to one (7, 8).

Last updated: 2006-08-17 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for REP2
1) Jayaram M, et al.  (1983) The yeast plasmid 2mu circle encodes components required for its high copy propagation. Cell 34(1):95-104
2) Veit BE and Fangman WL  (1988) Copy number and partition of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2 micron plasmid controlled by transcription regulators. Mol Cell Biol 8(11):4949-57
3) Pinder JB, et al.  (2013) Deficient sumoylation of yeast 2-micron plasmid proteins Rep1 and Rep2 associated with their loss from the plasmid-partitioning locus and impaired plasmid inheritance. PLoS One 8(3):e60384
4) Futcher AB  (1988) The 2 micron circle plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast 4(1):27-40
5) Ahn YT, et al.  (1997) The 2microm-plasmid-encoded Rep1 and Rep2 proteins interact with each other and colocalize to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae nucleus. J Bacteriol 179(23):7497-506
6) Ghosh SK, et al.  (2006) Mechanisms for chromosome and plasmid segregation. Annu Rev Biochem 75:211-41
7) Velmurugan S, et al.  (2000) Partitioning of the 2-microm circle plasmid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Functional coordination with chromosome segregation and plasmid-encoded rep protein distribution. J Cell Biol 149(3):553-66
8) Scott-Drew S, et al.  (2002) DNA plasmid transmission in yeast is associated with specific sub-nuclear localisation during cell division. Cell Biol Int 26(5):393-405