RAD3/YER171W Summary Help

Standard Name RAD3 1, 2
Systematic Name YER171W
Alias REM1 3
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description 5' to 3' DNA helicase; involved in nucleotide excision repair and transcription; subunit of RNA polII initiation factor TFIIH and of Nucleotide Excision Repair Factor 3 (NEF3); homolog of human XPD protein; mutant has aneuploidy tolerance; protein abundance increases in response to DNA replication stress (4, 5, 6, 7 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description RADiation sensitive
Chromosomal Location
ChrV:527082 to 529418 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Genetic position: 146 cM
Gene Ontology Annotations All RAD3 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for RAD3
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Regulators 1 genes
Classical genetics
reduction of function
Large-scale survey
237 total interaction(s) for 167 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 53
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 2
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 9
  • Biochemical Activity: 1
  • Co-crystal Structure: 1
  • Co-purification: 30
  • Reconstituted Complex: 4
  • Two-hybrid: 4

Genetic Interactions
  • Dosage Rescue: 1
  • Negative Genetic: 71
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 4
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 2
  • Positive Genetic: 12
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 22
  • Synthetic Lethality: 14
  • Synthetic Rescue: 7

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 778
Molecular Weight (Da) 89,785
Isoelectric Point (pI) 5.35
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrV:527082 to 529418 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Genetic position: 146 cM
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..2337 527082..529418 2011-02-03 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | E.C. | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000000973

In S. cerevisiae, nucleotide excision repair (NER) is mediated by Rad1p, Rad2p, Rad4p, Rad7p, Rad10p, Rad14p, Rad16p, Met18p, the transcription factor TFIIH, and the heterotrimeric complex RPA (Rfa1p, Rfa2p, Rfa3p). Together these proteins bind DNA lesions, including UV-induced photoproducts and chemical crosslinks, unwind the surrounding duplex, and make incisions on both sides of the damaged DNA, which releases a fragment of 25-30bp (reviewed in 4, 8).

The DNA helicases Rad3p and Ssl2p are required for transcription and are involved in the incision step that occurs at the site of damage during NER (9, 10, 11, 12, 13). These diverse roles are carried out by their membership in two complexes: the transcription factor TFIIH and the nucleotide excision factor 3 (NEF3) (14, 15, 16). RAD3 and SSL2 are essential for viability (17, 18). However, a variety of mutations have been made to study the individual contribution of Rad3p and Ssl2p to transcription and NER. A mutation in the nucleotide binding motif of Rad3p does not affect its viability while a similar mutation in Ssl2p is lethal, suggesting the helicase activity of Rad3p is not neccessary for transcription (19, 18). In addition, mutations have been identified in RAD3 and SSL2 that do not affect viability but result in sensitivity (19, 18, 20).

Additional rad3 phenotypes include elevated mutation rates, increased recombination rates, and increased mitotic recombination between short repeated sequences (21, 22, 23, 24).

S. cerevisiae Rad3p is related to the H. sapiens XPD, also known as ERCC2 (25). The human XPD gene complements the growth defect caused by a rad3 null mutation (26). Defects in human XPD result in a wide range of diseases, including xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), Cockayne's syndrome, and trichothiodystrophy. These are collectively known as xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group D.

Last updated: 2007-11-07 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for RAD3
1) Morrison, D.P.  (1978) Repair parameters in mutator mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ph.D Thesis
2) Sitney, K.  (1987) Genetic and molecular studies of the RAD24 gene of Saccharomyces. Ph.D. Thesis
3) Golin JE and Esposito MS  (1977) Evidence for joint genic control of spontaneous mutation and genetic recombination during mitosis in Saccharomyces. Mol Gen Genet 150(2):127-35
4) Prakash S and Prakash L  (2000) Nucleotide excision repair in yeast. Mutat Res 451(1-2):13-24
5) de Laat WL, et al.  (1999) Molecular mechanism of nucleotide excision repair. Genes Dev 13(7):768-85
6) Torres EM, et al.  (2010) Identification of aneuploidy-tolerating mutations. Cell 143(1):71-83
7) Tkach JM, et al.  (2012) Dissecting DNA damage response pathways by analysing protein localization and abundance changes during DNA replication stress. Nat Cell Biol 14(9):966-76
8) Hoeijmakers JH  (1993) Nucleotide excision repair I: from E. coli to yeast. Trends Genet 9(5):173-7
9) Sung P, et al.  (1987) RAD3 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a DNA helicase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 84(24):8951-5
10) Qiu H, et al.  (1993) The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA repair gene RAD25 is required for transcription by RNA polymerase II. Genes Dev 7(11):2161-71
11) Guzder SN, et al.  (1994) DNA repair gene RAD3 of S. cerevisiae is essential for transcription by RNA polymerase II. Nature 367(6458):91-4
12) Guzder SN, et al.  (1994) RAD25 is a DNA helicase required for DNA repair and RNA polymerase II transcription. Nature 369(6481):578-81
13) Sung P, et al.  (1996) Reconstitution of TFIIH and requirement of its DNA helicase subunits, Rad3 and Rad25, in the incision step of nucleotide excision repair. J Biol Chem 271(18):10821-6
14) Habraken Y, et al.  (1996) Transcription factor TFIIH and DNA endonuclease Rad2 constitute yeast nucleotide excision repair factor 3: implications for nucleotide excision repair and Cockayne syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93(20):10718-22
15) Takagi Y, et al.  (2003) Revised subunit structure of yeast transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) and reconciliation with human TFIIH. J Biol Chem 278(45):43897-900
16) Svejstrup JQ, et al.  (1995) Different forms of TFIIH for transcription and DNA repair: holo-TFIIH and a nucleotide excision repairosome. Cell 80(1):21-8
17) Naumovski L and Friedberg EC  (1983) A DNA repair gene required for the incision of damaged DNA is essential for viability in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 80(15):4818-21
18) Park E, et al.  (1992) RAD25 (SSL2), the yeast homolog of the human xeroderma pigmentosum group B DNA repair gene, is essential for viability. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89(23):11416-20
19) Sung P, et al.  (1988) Mutation of lysine-48 to arginine in the yeast RAD3 protein abolishes its ATPase and DNA helicase activities but not the ability to bind ATP. EMBO J 7(10):3263-9
20) Gulyas KD and Donahue TF  (1992) SSL2, a suppressor of a stem-loop mutation in the HIS4 leader encodes the yeast homolog of human ERCC-3. Cell 69(6):1031-42
21) Montelone BA, et al.  (1988) Spontaneous mitotic recombination in yeast: the hyper-recombinational rem1 mutations are alleles of the RAD3 gene. Genetics 119(2):289-301
22) Song JM, et al.  (1990) Effects of multiple yeast rad3 mutant alleles on UV sensitivity, mutability, and mitotic recombination. J Bacteriol 172(12):6620-30
23) Montelone BA and Malone RE  (1994) Analysis of the rad3-101 and rad3-102 mutations of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: implications for structure/function of Rad3 protein. Yeast 10(1):13-27
24) Bailis AM, et al.  (1995) The essential helicase gene RAD3 suppresses short-sequence recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 15(8):3998-4008
25) Weber CA, et al.  (1990) ERCC2: cDNA cloning and molecular characterization of a human nucleotide excision repair gene with high homology to yeast RAD3. EMBO J 9(5):1437-47
26) Sung P, et al.  (1993) Human xeroderma pigmentosum group D gene encodes a DNA helicase. Nature 365(6449):852-5