RAD1/YPL022W Summary Help

Standard Name RAD1
Systematic Name YPL022W
Alias LPB9
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Single-stranded DNA endonuclease (with Rad10p); cleaves single-stranded DNA during nucleotide excision repair and double-strand break repair; subunit of Nucleotide Excision Repair Factor 1 (NEF1); homolog of human XPF protein (1, 2, 3 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description RADiation sensitive
Chromosomal Location
ChrXVI:506697 to 509999 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Genetic position: -18 cM
Gene Ontology Annotations All RAD1 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for RAD1
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Regulators 2 genes
Classical genetics
reduction of function
Large-scale survey
336 total interaction(s) for 177 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 42
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 1
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 21
  • Co-fractionation: 2
  • Co-purification: 1
  • Reconstituted Complex: 10
  • Two-hybrid: 8

Genetic Interactions
  • Dosage Rescue: 2
  • Negative Genetic: 60
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 84
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 21
  • Positive Genetic: 12
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 37
  • Synthetic Lethality: 19
  • Synthetic Rescue: 16

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 1,100
Molecular Weight (Da) 126,369
Isoelectric Point (pI) 5.21
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrXVI:506697 to 509999 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Genetic position: -18 cM
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..3303 506697..509999 2011-02-03 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000005943

In S. cerevisiae, nucleotide excision repair (NER) is mediated by Rad1p, Rad2p, Rad4p, Rad7p, Rad10p, Rad14p, Rad16p, Met18p, the transcription factor TFIIH (composed of Rad3p, Ssl1p, Ssl2p, Tfb1p, Tfb2p, Tfb3p), and the heterotrimeric complex RPA (Rfa1p, Rfa2p, Rfa3p). Together these proteins bind DNA lesions, including UV-induced photoproducts and chemical crosslinks, unwind the surrounding duplex, and make incisions on both sides of the damaged DNA, which releases a fragment of 25-30bp (reviewed in 1, 4).

The various NER proteins assemble into four complexes, NEF1-4 (nucleotide excision repair factors; reviewed in 1). Rad14p, Rad1p, and Rad10p form the complex NEF1 (5). In NEF1, Rad14p and Rad10p form tight interactions with Rad1p but not with each other (5, 6). NEF1 targeting is mediated by Rad14p, which recognizes and binds the damaged DNA (7). Together, Rad1p and Rad10p form a single-strand DNA endonuclease that binds DNA and then nicks the damaged DNA strand on the 5' side of the lesion (8, 9). The Rad1p/Rad10p endonuclease is structure-specific and cleaves 3'-ended single stranded DNA at its junction with the duplex DNA (9).

In addition to their requirement in NER, the RAD1 and RAD10 genes function in mitotic recombination, double-strand break repair via the single-strand annealing pathway, and processing meiotic recombination intermediates (10, 11, 12, 13, 14). RAD1 and RAD10 null mutants are viable but are defective in the preceding processes and show increased sensitivity to UV radiation (15, 16, 10, 14, 13).

RAD1 orthologs have been identified in S. pombe, Arabidopsis, Drosophila, and humans (17, 18, 19, 20). Inactivation of the human homolog, XPF/ERCC4 (OMIM), leads to the disorder xeroderma pigmentosum (XP; OMIM), which is characterized by UV light sensitivity and increased incidence of skin cancer (20).

Last updated: 2006-03-14 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for RAD1
1) Prakash S and Prakash L  (2000) Nucleotide excision repair in yeast. Mutat Res 451(1-2):13-24
2) Symington LS  (2002) Role of RAD52 epistasis group genes in homologous recombination and double-strand break repair. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 66(4):630-70, table of contents
3) de Laat WL, et al.  (1999) Molecular mechanism of nucleotide excision repair. Genes Dev 13(7):768-85
4) Hoeijmakers JH  (1993) Nucleotide excision repair I: from E. coli to yeast. Trends Genet 9(5):173-7
5) Guzder SN, et al.  (1996) Nucleotide excision repair in yeast is mediated by sequential assembly of repair factors and not by a pre-assembled repairosome. J Biol Chem 271(15):8903-10
6) Bailly V, et al.  (1992) Specific complex formation between proteins encoded by the yeast DNA repair and recombination genes RAD1 and RAD10. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89(17):8273-7
7) Guzder SN, et al.  (2006) Complex formation with damage recognition protein Rad14 is essential for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad1-Rad10 nuclease to perform its function in nucleotide excision repair in vivo. Mol Cell Biol 26(3):1135-41
8) Tomkinson AE, et al.  (1993) Yeast DNA repair and recombination proteins Rad1 and Rad10 constitute a single-stranded-DNA endonuclease. Nature 362(6423):860-2
9) Bardwell AJ, et al.  (1994) Specific cleavage of model recombination and repair intermediates by the yeast Rad1-Rad10 DNA endonuclease. Science 265(5181):2082-5
10) Ivanov EL and Haber JE  (1995) RAD1 and RAD10, but not other excision repair genes, are required for double-strand break-induced recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 15(4):2245-51
11) Schiestl RH and Prakash S  (1988) RAD1, an excision repair gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is also involved in recombination. Mol Cell Biol 8(9):3619-26
12) Schiestl RH and Prakash S  (1990) RAD10, an excision repair gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is involved in the RAD1 pathway of mitotic recombination. Mol Cell Biol 10(6):2485-91
13) Fishman-Lobell J and Haber JE  (1992) Removal of nonhomologous DNA ends in double-strand break recombination: the role of the yeast ultraviolet repair gene RAD1. Science 258(5081):480-4
14) Kirkpatrick DT and Petes TD  (1997) Repair of DNA loops involves DNA-mismatch and nucleotide-excision repair proteins. Nature 387(6636):929-31
15) Higgins DR, et al.  (1983) Molecular cloning and characterization of the RAD1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene 26(2-3):119-26
16) Prakash L, et al.  (1985) Molecular cloning of the RAD10 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene 34(1):55-61
17) Carr AM, et al.  (1994) The rad16 gene of Schizosaccharomyces pombe: a homolog of the RAD1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 14(3):2029-40
18) Fidantsef AL, et al.  (2000) The Arabidopsis UVH1 gene is a homolog of the yeast repair endonuclease RAD1. Plant Physiol 124(2):579-86
19) Sekelsky JJ, et al.  (1995) The Drosophila meiotic recombination gene mei-9 encodes a homologue of the yeast excision repair protein Rad1. Genetics 141(2):619-27
20) Sijbers AM, et al.  (1996) Xeroderma pigmentosum group F caused by a defect in a structure-specific DNA repair endonuclease. Cell 86(5):811-22