HSF1/YGL073W Summary Help

Standard Name HSF1 1
Systematic Name YGL073W
Alias EXA3 , MAS3
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Trimeric heat shock transcription factor; activates multiple genes in response to highly diverse stresses, including hyperthermia; recognizes variable heat shock elements (HSEs) consisting of inverted NGAAN repeats; monitors translational status of cell at the ribosome through an RQC (Ribosomal Quality Control)-mediated translation-stress signal; involved in diauxic shift; posttranslationally regulated (2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description Heat Shock transcription Factor 8
Chromosomal Location
ChrVII:368753 to 371254 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Gene Ontology Annotations All HSF1 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for HSF1
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Targets 478 genes
Regulators 6 genes
Classical genetics
reduction of function
Large-scale survey
reduction of function
85 total interaction(s) for 71 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 11
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 1
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 4
  • Biochemical Activity: 11
  • Co-localization: 3
  • Reconstituted Complex: 2
  • Two-hybrid: 3

Genetic Interactions
  • Dosage Rescue: 16
  • Negative Genetic: 8
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 1
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 5
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 2
  • Synthetic Haploinsufficiency: 1
  • Synthetic Lethality: 6
  • Synthetic Rescue: 11

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 833
Molecular Weight (Da) 93,281
Isoelectric Point (pI) 5.14
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrVII:368753 to 371254 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..2502 368753..371254 2011-02-03 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000003041

HSF1 encodes a transcription factor that regulates transcription in response to stress (9). Best known for its involvement in heat shock response, Hsf1p regulates the transcription of hundreds of targets, including genes involved in protein folding, detoxification, energy generation, carbohydrate metabolism, and cell wall organization (10, 11). Deletion of HSF1 is lethal and mutants are defective in several processes including maintenance of cell wall integrity, spindle pole body duplication, protein transport, and cell cycle progression (1, 12, 13, 14).

Hsf1p binds in both constitutive and inducible manners to the conserved heat shock element (HSE) motif found in the promoters of its target genes as a homotrimeric complex; each individual monomer recognizes the 5-bp sequence, 5'-NGAAN-3' (1, 15, 16). HSEs fall into one of three categories depending on the organization of the NGAAN motifs: ''Perfect'' HSEs consist of three or more contiguous repeats of the motif, ''gap'' HSEs consists of a 5-bp gap separating two contiguous motifs from a third one, and ''step'' HSEs contain 5-bp gaps separating each of the three motifs (5 and references contained therein).

In unstressed cells Hsf1p is constitutively phosphorylated, but under certain stresses, such as alkaline pH, increased concentrations of salicylate, oxidative stress, heat stress, or glucose starvation, it becomes hyperphosphorylated and adopts an activated conformation resulting in the transcription of target genes (17, and reviewed in 18). Glucose starvation-induced hyperphosphorylation is mediated by the AMP-activated kinase Snf1p (19).

Hsf1p includes a winged-helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain (DBD) (20), a hydrophobic repeat region necessary for coiled-coil formation during Hsf1p oligomerization (21), N-terminal and C-terminal trans-activation domains (AR1 and AR2) (22, 23), the negative regulatory domain conserved element 2 (CE2) (24), and the C-terminal modulator (CTM) domain which alleviates CE2 repression (25). In addition to binding HSE motifs, the DBD negatively regulates Hsf1p transcriptional activity (2). AR1 is thought to mediate the response to transient heat shock while AR2 is thought to mediate response to sustained heat stress (23). AR2 and CTM are also necessary for mediating transcription of genes with gap-type HSEs (25, 26).

The general structure and function of heat shock factors are conserved between eukaryotic organisms, but the number and importance of HSF genes varies. HSF1 homologs have been identified in S. pombe, D. melanogaster, chickens, plants, and mammals (11 and references therein). Mammalian HSF1 is involved in the processes of stress-induced transcription, extra-embryonic development, and postnatal growth (27).

Last updated: 2006-11-13 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for HSF1
1) Wiederrecht G, et al.  (1988) Isolation of the gene encoding the S. cerevisiae heat shock transcription factor. Cell 54(6):841-53
2) Bulman AL, et al.  (2001) The DNA-binding domain of yeast heat shock transcription factor independently regulates both the N- and C-terminal activation domains. J Biol Chem 276(43):40254-62
3) Bonner JJ, et al.  (2000) Structural analysis of yeast HSF by site-specific crosslinking. J Mol Biol 302(3):581-92
4) Hoj A and Jakobsen BK  (1994) A short element required for turning off heat shock transcription factor: evidence that phosphorylation enhances deactivation. EMBO J 13(11):2617-24
5) Yamamoto A, et al.  (2005) Identification of a novel class of target genes and a novel type of binding sequence of heat shock transcription factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem 280(12):11911-9
6) Brandman O, et al.  (2012) A ribosome-bound quality control complex triggers degradation of nascent peptides and signals translation stress. Cell 151(5):1042-54
7) Zampar GG, et al.  (2013) Temporal system-level organization of the switch from glycolytic to gluconeogenic operation in yeast. Mol Syst Biol 9():651
8) Bonner JJ, et al.  (1992) Temperature-dependent regulation of a heterologous transcriptional activation domain fused to yeast heat shock transcription factor. Mol Cell Biol 12(3):1021-30
9) Sorger PK and Pelham HR  (1987) Purification and characterization of a heat-shock element binding protein from yeast. EMBO J 6(10):3035-41
10) Hahn JS, et al.  (2004) Genome-wide analysis of the biology of stress responses through heat shock transcription factor. Mol Cell Biol 24(12):5249-56
11) Eastmond DL and Nelson HC  (2006) Genome-wide analysis reveals new roles for the activation domains of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae heat shock transcription factor (Hsf1) during the transient heat shock response. J Biol Chem 281(43):32909-21
12) Imazu H and Sakurai H  (2005) Saccharomyces cerevisiae heat shock transcription factor regulates cell wall remodeling in response to heat shock. Eukaryot Cell 4(6):1050-6
13) Zarzov P, et al.  (1997) A yeast heat shock transcription factor (Hsf1) mutant is defective in both Hsc82/Hsp82 synthesis and spindle pole body duplication. J Cell Sci 110 ( Pt 16)():1879-91
14) Smith BJ and Yaffe MP  (1991) A mutation in the yeast heat-shock factor gene causes temperature-sensitive defects in both mitochondrial protein import and the cell cycle. Mol Cell Biol 11(5):2647-55
15) Jakobsen BK and Pelham HR  (1988) Constitutive binding of yeast heat shock factor to DNA in vivo. Mol Cell Biol 8(11):5040-2
16) Giardina C and Lis JT  (1995) Dynamic protein-DNA architecture of a yeast heat shock promoter. Mol Cell Biol 15(5):2737-44
17) Hashikawa N, et al.  (2006) Mutated yeast heat shock transcription factor activates transcription independently of hyperphosphorylation. J Biol Chem 281(7):3936-42
18) Burnie JP, et al.  (2006) Fungal heat-shock proteins in human disease. FEMS Microbiol Rev 30(1):53-88
19) Hahn JS and Thiele DJ  (2004) Activation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae heat shock transcription factor under glucose starvation conditions by Snf1 protein kinase. J Biol Chem 279(7):5169-76
20) Harrison CJ, et al.  (1994) Crystal structure of the DNA binding domain of the heat shock transcription factor. Science 263(5144):224-7
21) Sorger PK and Nelson HC  (1989) Trimerization of a yeast transcriptional activator via a coiled-coil motif. Cell 59(5):807-13
22) Nieto-Sotelo J, et al.  (1990) The yeast heat shock transcription factor contains a transcriptional activation domain whose activity is repressed under nonshock conditions. Cell 62(4):807-17
23) Sorger PK  (1990) Yeast heat shock factor contains separable transient and sustained response transcriptional activators. Cell 62(4):793-805
24) Jakobsen BK and Pelham HR  (1991) A conserved heptapeptide restrains the activity of the yeast heat shock transcription factor. EMBO J 10(2):369-75
25) Sakurai H and Fukasawa T  (2001) A novel domain of the yeast heat shock factor that regulates its activation function. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 285(3):696-701
26) Santoro N, et al.  (1998) Heat shock element architecture is an important determinant in the temperature and transactivation domain requirements for heat shock transcription factor. Mol Cell Biol 18(11):6340-52
27) Xiao X, et al.  (1999) HSF1 is required for extra-embryonic development, postnatal growth and protection during inflammatory responses in mice. EMBO J 18(21):5943-52
28) Badis G, et al.  (2008) A library of yeast transcription factor motifs reveals a widespread function for Rsc3 in targeting nucleosome exclusion at promoters. Mol Cell 32(6):878-87
29) Harbison CT, et al.  (2004) Transcriptional regulatory code of a eukaryotic genome. Nature 431(7004):99-104
30) Bonner JJ, et al.  (1994) Interactions between DNA-bound trimers of the yeast heat shock factor. Mol Cell Biol 14(1):501-8