HHF1/YBR009C Summary Help

Standard Name HHF1
Systematic Name YBR009C
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Histone H4; core histone protein required for chromatin assembly and chromosome function; one of two identical histone proteins (see also HHF2); contributes to telomeric silencing; N-terminal domain involved in maintaining genomic integrity (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description Histone H Four
Chromosomal Location
ChrII:255684 to 255373 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Note: this feature is encoded on the Crick strand.
Gene Ontology Annotations All HHF1 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for HHF1
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Regulators 14 genes
Classical genetics
reduction of function
Large-scale survey
1020 total interaction(s) for 583 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-Luminescence: 3
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 519
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 5
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 68
  • Biochemical Activity: 24
  • Co-localization: 10
  • Co-purification: 8
  • Far Western: 2
  • FRET: 2
  • PCA: 7
  • Protein-peptide: 3
  • Reconstituted Complex: 85
  • Two-hybrid: 5

Genetic Interactions
  • Dosage Growth Defect: 5
  • Dosage Lethality: 10
  • Dosage Rescue: 11
  • Negative Genetic: 138
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 10
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 16
  • Positive Genetic: 42
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 20
  • Synthetic Lethality: 7
  • Synthetic Rescue: 20

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 103
Molecular Weight (Da) 11,368
Isoelectric Point (pI) 11.95
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrII:255684 to 255373 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Note: this feature is encoded on the Crick strand.
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 1997-01-28
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..312 255684..255373 2011-02-03 1997-01-28
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000000213

About yeast nucleosomes...

Chromatin is composed of arrays of nucleosomes, with each nucleosome comprising an octamer formed by two copies each of the H2A-H2B and H3-H4 heterodimers (7). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, each of the canonical histones is encoded by two genes: H2A by HTA1 and HTA2, H2B by HTB1 and HTB2, H3 by HHT1 and HHT2, and H4 by HHF1 and HHF2. The eight genes are organized into four pairs of divergently-transcribed loci: HTA1-HTB1 and HTA2-HTB2, each encoding histone proteins H2A and H2B; and HHT1-HHF1 and HHT2-HHF2, each encoding histone proteins H3 and H4. As a result of this redundancy, deletion of any one histone locus does not cause lethality (8). The H3-H4 protein dimers interact via a four-helix bundle at the H3 C-termini, and the H2A-H2B dimers bind to the resulting central H3-H4 tetramer via a similar four-helix bundle interaction between the H2B and H4 C-termini (9). Approximately 150 bp of duplex DNA is wound onto the histone octamer as two turns of a negative superhelix (10). A single copy of the linker histone H1 (encoded by HHO1) binds between the superhelices at the site of DNA entry and exit. In some nucleosomes, the histone variant H2A.Z (encoded by HTZ1) is substituted for the canonical H2A in a wide, but nonrandom, genomic distribution, enriched in promoter regions as compared to coding regions (11). The positioning of nucleosomes along chromatin has been implicated in the regulation of gene expression, since the packaging of DNA into nucleosomes affects sequence accessibility (12). Nucleosomes prevent many DNA-binding proteins from approaching their sites (13, 14, 15), whereas appropriately positioned nucleosomes can bring discontiguous DNA sequences into close proximity to promote transcription (16).

Last updated: 2007-05-31 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for HHF1
1) Megee PC, et al.  (1995) Histone H4 and the maintenance of genome integrity. Genes Dev 9(14):1716-27
2) Wyrick JJ, et al.  (1999) Chromosomal landscape of nucleosome-dependent gene expression and silencing in yeast. Nature 402(6760):418-21
3) Smith MM, et al.  (1996) A novel histone H4 mutant defective in nuclear division and mitotic chromosome transmission. Mol Cell Biol 16(3):1017-26
4) Smith MM and Andresson OS  (1983) DNA sequences of yeast H3 and H4 histone genes from two non-allelic gene sets encode identical H3 and H4 proteins. J Mol Biol 169(3):663-90
5) Grunstein M  (1990) Histone function in transcription. Annu Rev Cell Biol 6:643-78
6) Altheim BA and Schultz MC  (1999) Histone modification governs the cell cycle regulation of a replication-independent chromatin assembly pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96(4):1345-50
7) Schafer G, et al.  (2005) The Saccharomyces cerevisiae linker histone Hho1p, with two globular domains, can simultaneously bind to two four-way junction DNA molecules. Biochemistry 44(50):16766-75
8) Dollard C, et al.  (1994) SPT10 and SPT21 are required for transcription of particular histone genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 14(8):5223-8
9) Luger K, et al.  (1997) Crystal structure of the nucleosome core particle at 2.8 A resolution. Nature 389(6648):251-60
10) Richmond TJ and Davey CA  (2003) The structure of DNA in the nucleosome core. Nature 423(6936):145-50
11) Li B, et al.  (2005) Preferential occupancy of histone variant H2AZ at inactive promoters influences local histone modifications and chromatin remodeling. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102(51):18385-90
12) Yuan GC, et al.  (2005) Genome-scale identification of nucleosome positions in S. cerevisiae. Science 309(5734):626-30
13) Anderson JD and Widom J  (2000) Sequence and position-dependence of the equilibrium accessibility of nucleosomal DNA target sites. J Mol Biol 296(4):979-87
14) Wallrath LL, et al.  (1994) Architectural variations of inducible eukaryotic promoters: preset and remodeling chromatin structures. Bioessays 16(3):165-70
15) Venter U, et al.  (1994) A nucleosome precludes binding of the transcription factor Pho4 in vivo to a critical target site in the PHO5 promoter. EMBO J 13(20):4848-55
16) Stunkel W, et al.  (1997) A nucleosome positioned in the distal promoter region activates transcription of the human U6 gene. Mol Cell Biol 17(8):4397-405