GLC3/YEL011W Summary Help

Standard Name GLC3 1
Systematic Name YEL011W
Alias GHA1
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Glycogen branching enzyme, involved in glycogen accumulation; green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion protein localizes to the cytoplasm in a punctate pattern; relocalizes from nucleus to cytoplasmic foci upon DNA replication stress (2, 3, 4 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description GLyCogen
Chromosomal Location
ChrV:133120 to 135234 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Genetic position: -2 cM
Gene Ontology Annotations All GLC3 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for GLC3
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Regulators 11 genes
Classical genetics
reduction of function
Large-scale survey
14 total interaction(s) for 11 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 3
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 1

Genetic Interactions
  • Dosage Growth Defect: 1
  • Negative Genetic: 5
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 1
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 2
  • Positive Genetic: 1

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 704
Molecular Weight (Da) 81,115
Isoelectric Point (pI) 6.12
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrV:133120 to 135234 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Genetic position: -2 cM
Last Update Coordinates: 1996-07-31 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..2115 133120..135234 1996-07-31 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | E.C. | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000000737

Glycogen, a branched polymer of glucose, is a storage molecule whose accumulation is under rigorous nutritional control in many cells (5). In S. cerevisiae, glycogen biosynthesis involves three processes: nucleation, elongation, and ramification, or branching (6). GLG1 and GLG2 encode self-glucosylating glycogenin glucosyltransferases (EC: involved in glycogen nucleation (5). Both Glg1p and Glg2p are able to use UDP-glucose to produce a short alpha (1,4)-glucosyl chain covalently attached to an internal tyrosine residue (7). Glycogen synthase (EC:, Gsy1p and Gsy2p) is then able to extend the linear alpha (1,4)-chains of glycogen by catalyzing the formation of alpha (1,4)-glucosidic bonds from UDP-glucose at the non-reducing ends (8). Branches can be added into the glycogen molecule by Glc3p, the glycogen branching enzyme (EC: in S. cerevisiae (2). No enzyme that releases the glycogen chain from Glg1p or Glg2p has been identified (6).

GLC3 mRNA begins to accumulate when approximately 50% of the environmental glucose is gone, and peaks when environmental glucose is exhausted, similar to other glycogen metabolism genes (9). glc3 null mutants are viable, but do not accumulate glycogen, indicating that branch formation is required for glycogen biosynthesis in S. cerevisiae (2). glc3 null mutants do not display phenotypes similar to the Glycogen Storage Disease IV that is associated with mutations in the human glycogen branching enzyme GBE1 (6).

Last updated: 2005-08-30 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for GLC3
1) Pringle, J.  (1985) Personal Communication, Mortimer Map Edition 9
2) Thon VJ, et al.  (1992) Coordinate regulation of glycogen metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Induction of glycogen branching enzyme. J Biol Chem 267(21):15224-8
3) Huh WK, et al.  (2003) Global analysis of protein localization in budding yeast. Nature 425(6959):686-91
4) Tkach JM, et al.  (2012) Dissecting DNA damage response pathways by analysing protein localization and abundance changes during DNA replication stress. Nat Cell Biol 14(9):966-76
5) Cheng C, et al.  (1995) Requirement of the self-glucosylating initiator proteins Glg1p and Glg2p for glycogen accumulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 15(12):6632-40
6) Francois J and Parrou JL  (2001) Reserve carbohydrates metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Microbiol Rev 25(1):125-45
7) Mu J, et al.  (1996) Initiation of glycogen synthesis in yeast. Requirement of multiple tyrosine residues for function of the self-glucosylating Glg proteins in vivo. J Biol Chem 271(43):26554-60
8) Farkas I, et al.  (1991) Two glycogen synthase isoforms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are coded by distinct genes that are differentially controlled. J Biol Chem 266(24):15602-7
9) Parrou JL, et al.  (1999) Dynamic responses of reserve carbohydrate metabolism under carbon and nitrogen limitations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast 15(3):191-203