GAS1/YMR307W Summary Help

Standard Name GAS1 1
Systematic Name YMR307W
Alias CWH52 , GGP1 2
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Beta-1,3-glucanosyltransferase; required for cell wall assembly and also has a role in transcriptional silencing; localizes to cell surface via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor; also found at nuclear periphery; genetic interactions with histone H3 lysine acetyltransferases GCN5 and SAS3 indicate previously unsuspected functions for Gas1 in DNA damage response and cell cycle regulation (3, 4, 5 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description Glycophospholipid-Anchored Surface protein 1
Chromosomal Location
ChrXIII:887003 to 888682 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Gbrowse
Gene Ontology Annotations All GAS1 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for GAS1
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
High-throughput
Regulators 14 genes
Resources
Classical genetics
null
overexpression
unspecified
Large-scale survey
null
overexpression
Resources
1022 total interaction(s) for 500 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 9
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 5
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 12
  • Co-fractionation: 3
  • PCA: 1
  • Reconstituted Complex: 1
  • Two-hybrid: 1

Genetic Interactions
  • Dosage Growth Defect: 1
  • Dosage Rescue: 14
  • Negative Genetic: 658
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 2
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 8
  • Positive Genetic: 140
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 59
  • Synthetic Lethality: 98
  • Synthetic Rescue: 10

Resources
Expression Summary
histogram
Resources
Length (a.a.) 559
Molecular Weight (Da) 59,582
Isoelectric Point (pI) 4.3
Localization
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
Structure
Homologs
sequence information
ChrXIII:887003 to 888682 | ORF Map | GBrowse
This feature contains embedded feature(s): YMR307C-A
SGD ORF map
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 1997-07-17
Subfeature details
Relative
Coordinates
Chromosomal
Coordinates
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..1680 887003..888682 2011-02-03 1997-07-17
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
Resources
External Links All Associated Seq | E.C. | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000004924
SUMMARY PARAGRAPH for GAS1

GAS1 encodes a cell wall-bound 1,3-beta-glucanosyltransferase involved in the formation and maintenance of 1,3-beta-glucan, which is the major polysaccharide of the cell wall (reviewed in 6). After 1,3-beta-glucan is synthesized by the plasma membrane 1,3-beta-glucan synthase complex, Gas1p is believed to provide the activity required to elongate and rearrange its side chains. Those chains are subsequently cross-linked with chitin, 1,6-beta-glucan and proteins to form the mesh-like structure of the main layer of the cell wall (7, 8). Consistent with the role of Gas1p in cell wall biogenesis, a gas1 null mutation leads to phenotypes characteristic of a weakened cell wall: cells are abnormally round, have reduced viability, and display increased sensitivity to cell wall-affecting drugs and elevated temperatures (9, 10).

The Gas1p precursor is modified by removal of the C-terminal hydrophobic domain and covalent attachment of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) moiety (11, 1). The GPI serves as a membrane anchor and is essential for transport of the protein through the ER and Golgi towards the cell surface. As it moves through the secretory pathway, Gas1p also receives O-linked and N-linked glycosylation (12). The final destination of Gas1p had long been thought to be the plasma membrane, where Gas1p would remain attached to the bilayer via the intact GPI anchor (1). Recent data, however, indicate that Gas1p is covalently attached to the cell wall glucan via a GPI remnant at its C terminus (13, 14). As the most abundant and easily detectable GPI-anchored protein, Gas1p has been widely used as a marker in studies of GPI anchoring (15), as well as ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport (16), roles of lipid rafts (17), and protein glycosylation (18).

GAS1, GAS2, GAS3, GAS4, and GAS5 are members of the glycosidase/transglycosidase GH72 family of fungal enzymes involved in cell wall maintenance. They share significant similarity with Aspergillus fumigatus GEL1 and GEL2, and with Candida albicans PHR1 and PHR2. Similar to the most extensively characterized member, Gas1p, the remaining GAS proteins are thought to be cell wall-bound 1,3-beta-glucanosyltransferases involved in cell wall assembly and maintenance (8, 19). Based on their expression patterns, they appear to play partially overlapping roles throughout the development: GAS1 and GAS5 are expressed during vegetative growth, whereas GAS2 and GAS4 are expressed exclusively during sporulation and required for normal spore wall formation (20).

Last updated: 2007-06-01 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for GAS1
1) Nuoffer C, et al.  (1991) Determinants for glycophospholipid anchoring of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GAS1 protein to the plasma membrane. Mol Cell Biol 11(1):27-37
2) Vai M, et al.  (1991) Isolation and deduced amino acid sequence of the gene encoding gp115, a yeast glycophospholipid-anchored protein containing a serine-rich region. J Biol Chem 266(19):12242-8
3) Tomishige N, et al.  (2003) Mutations that are synthetically lethal with a gas1Delta allele cause defects in the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Genet Genomics 269(4):562-73
4) Koch MR and Pillus L  (2009) The glucanosyltransferase Gas1 functions in transcriptional silencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(27):11224-9
5) Eustice M and Pillus L  (2014) Unexpected Function of the Glucanosyltransferase Gas1 in the DNA Damage Response Linked to Histone H3 Acetyltransferases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 196(4):1029-39
6) Klis FM, et al.  (2002) Dynamics of cell wall structure in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Microbiol Rev 26(3):239-56
7) Mouyna I, et al.  (2000) Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored glucanosyltransferases play an active role in the biosynthesis of the fungal cell wall. J Biol Chem 275(20):14882-9
8) Ragni E, et al.  (2007) The Gas family of proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae: characterization and evolutionary analysis. Yeast 24(4):297-308
9) Popolo L, et al.  (1993) Physiological analysis of mutants indicates involvement of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GPI-anchored protein gp115 in morphogenesis and cell separation. J Bacteriol 175(7):1879-85
10) Ram AF, et al.  (1998) Loss of the plasma membrane-bound protein Gas1p in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in the release of beta1,3-glucan into the medium and induces a compensation mechanism to ensure cell wall integrity. J Bacteriol 180(6):1418-24
11) Conzelmann A, et al.  (1988) A major 125-kd membrane glycoprotein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is attached to the lipid bilayer through an inositol-containing phospholipid. EMBO J 7(7):2233-40
12) Doering TL and Schekman R  (1996) GPI anchor attachment is required for Gas1p transport from the endoplasmic reticulum in COP II vesicles. EMBO J 15(1):182-91
13) De Sampaio G, et al.  (1999) A constitutive role for GPI anchors in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: cell wall targeting. Mol Microbiol 34(2):247-56
14) Yin QY, et al.  (2005) Comprehensive proteomic analysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls: identification of proteins covalently attached via glycosylphosphatidylinositol remnants or mild alkali-sensitive linkages. J Biol Chem 280(21):20894-901
15) Bosson R and Conzelmann A  (2007) Multiple functions of inositolphosphorylceramides in the formation and intracellular transport of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins in yeast. Biochem Soc Symp (74):199-209
16) Muniz M, et al.  (2001) Protein sorting upon exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. Cell 104(2):313-20
17) Bagnat M, et al.  (2000) Lipid rafts function in biosynthetic delivery of proteins to the cell surface in yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97(7):3254-9
18) Gentzsch M and Tanner W  (1997) Protein-O-glycosylation in yeast: protein-specific mannosyltransferases. Glycobiology 7(4):481-6
19) Hamada K, et al.  (1999) Amino acid residues in the omega-minus region participate in cellular localization of yeast glycosylphosphatidylinositol-attached proteins. J Bacteriol 181(13):3886-9
20) Ragni E, et al.  (2007) GAS2 and GAS4, a pair of developmentally regulated genes required for spore wall assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell 6(2):302-16