CYR1/YJL005W Summary Help

Standard Name CYR1 1
Systematic Name YJL005W
Alias CDC35 , HSR1 , SRA4 , TSM0185 , FIL1
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Adenylate cyclase; required for cAMP production and cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling; the cAMP pathway controls a variety of cellular processes, including metabolism, cell cycle, stress response, stationary phase, and sporulation (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description CYclic AMP Requirement 1
Chromosomal Location
ChrX:425157 to 431237 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Genetic position: 2 cM
Gene Ontology Annotations All CYR1 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for CYR1
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Regulators 1 genes
Classical genetics
Large-scale survey
reduction of function
101 total interaction(s) for 62 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 36
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 3
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 7
  • Biochemical Activity: 1
  • Co-fractionation: 1
  • PCA: 2
  • Reconstituted Complex: 3
  • Two-hybrid: 4

Genetic Interactions
  • Dosage Lethality: 3
  • Dosage Rescue: 11
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 2
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 2
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 3
  • Synthetic Haploinsufficiency: 1
  • Synthetic Lethality: 3
  • Synthetic Rescue: 19

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 2,026
Molecular Weight (Da) 227,832
Isoelectric Point (pI) 7.29
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrX:425157 to 431237 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Genetic position: 2 cM
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..6081 425157..431237 2011-02-03 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | E.C. | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000003542

In S. cerevisiae, growth and metabolism in response to nutrients, particularly glucose, is regulated to a large degree by the Ras/cyclic AMP (cAMP) pathway (reviewed in 6). CYR1 encodes adenylate cyclase, the enzyme that synthesizes cAMP from ATP (2). Through its role in increasing cAMP levels to activate cAMP-dependent protein kinase, Cyr1p is involved in nutrient signaling, cell cycle progression, sporulation, cell growth, stress response, and longevity (3 and reviewed in 7 and 8). In response to nutrients, Cyr1p is activated through the concerted actions of the cyclase associated protein Srv2p, the RasGEF Cdc25p, and either of the RAS GTPases Ras1p or Ras2p (9, 10, 11, 12). Cyr1p activation is dependent upon its localization to the plasma membrane, a peripheral association that requires the RasGAP Ira1p (13). Cyr1p contains five domains: an N-terminal region of as yet unknown function, a Ras-binding region, a linker domain, a catalytic domain, and a C-terminal Srv2p-binding domain (10 and references therein).

Loss of Cyr1p activity leads to a decrease in the intracellular levels of cAMP, resulting in pleiotropic phenotypes that mimic nutrient starvation, such as growth arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, increased life-span, and defects in sporulation, conjugation, and utilization of nonfermentable carbon sources (1, 14, 15, 16). cyr1 mutants are also more freeze tolerant and more resistant to certain types of stresses such as heat shock and oxidative stress (16, 17, and reviewed in 18).

Adenylate cyclases can be found in organisms ranging from bacteria to humans (19). Although the adenylate cyclases from E. coli and S. cerevisiae are able to functionally complement each other, the lack of amino acid similarity between these enzymes leads to the speculation that cAMP synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is an example of evolutionary convergence (20).

Last updated: 2007-06-07 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for CYR1
1) Matsumoto K, et al.  (1982) Isolation and characterization of yeast mutants deficient in adenylate cyclase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 79(7):2355-9
2) Kataoka T, et al.  (1985) DNA sequence and characterization of the S. cerevisiae gene encoding adenylate cyclase. Cell 43(2 Pt 1):493-505
3) Casperson GF, et al.  (1985) Isolation of the gene encoding adenylate cyclase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 82(15):5060-3
4) Jacquet M and Camonis J  (1985) [Control of the cell division cycle and sporulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by the cyclic AMP system]. Biochimie 67(1):35-43
5) Cannon JF and Tatchell K  (1987) Characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes encoding subunits of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. Mol Cell Biol 7(8):2653-63
6) Broach JR  (1991) RAS genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: signal transduction in search of a pathway. Trends Genet 7(1):28-33
7) Santangelo GM  (2006) Glucose signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 70(1):253-82
8) Bitterman KJ, et al.  (2003) Longevity regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: linking metabolism, genome stability, and heterochromatin. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 67(3):376-99, table of contents
9) Engelberg D, et al.  (1990) In vitro reconstitution of cdc25 regulated S. cerevisiae adenylyl cyclase and its kinetic properties. EMBO J 9(3):641-51
10) Yu J, et al.  (1999) A cytoskeletal localizing domain in the cyclase-associated protein, CAP/Srv2p, regulates access to a distant SH3-binding site. J Biol Chem 274(28):19985-91
11) Mintzer KA and Field J  (1994) Interactions between adenylyl cyclase, CAP and RAS from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell Signal 6(6):681-94
12) Toda T, et al.  (1985) In yeast, RAS proteins are controlling elements of adenylate cyclase. Cell 40(1):27-36
13) Mitts MR, et al.  (1991) Interactions between adenylate cyclase and the yeast GTPase-activating protein IRA1. Mol Cell Biol 11(9):4591-8
14) Matsumoto K, et al.  (1983) Control of cell division in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants defective in adenylate cyclase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Exp Cell Res 146(1):151-61
15) Fabrizio P, et al.  (2001) Regulation of longevity and stress resistance by Sch9 in yeast. Science 292(5515):288-90
16) Mitsuzawa H, et al.  (1989) Isolation and characterization of temperature-sensitive mutations in the RAS2 and CYR1 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 123(4):739-48
17) Van Dijck P, et al.  (2000) A baker's yeast mutant (fil1) with a specific, partially inactivating mutation in adenylate cyclase maintains a high stress resistance during active fermentation and growth. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol 2(4):521-30
18) Longo VD  (2003) The Ras and Sch9 pathways regulate stress resistance and longevity. Exp Gerontol 38(7):807-11
19) Casperson GF, et al.  (1983) A guanine nucleotide-sensitive adenylate cyclase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem 258(13):7911-4
20) Masson P, et al.  (1986) Yeast adenylate cyclase catalytic domain is carboxy terminal. Curr Genet 10(5):343-52