ATG11/YPR049C Summary Help

Standard Name ATG11 1
Systematic Name YPR049C
Alias CVT9 2 , CVT3 3
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Adapter protein for pexophagy and the Cvt targeting pathway; directs receptor-bound cargo to the phagophore assembly site (PAS) for packaging into vesicles; required for recruiting other proteins to the PAS; recruits Dnm1p to facilitate fission of mitochondria that are destined for removal by mitophagy (4, 5, 6, 7 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description AuTophaGy related 1
Chromosomal Location
ChrXVI:664673 to 661137 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Note: this feature is encoded on the Crick strand.
Gene Ontology Annotations All ATG11 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for ATG11
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Regulators 77 genes
Classical genetics
reduction of function
Large-scale survey
131 total interaction(s) for 89 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 19
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 13
  • Biochemical Activity: 1
  • Co-localization: 2
  • FRET: 1
  • PCA: 3
  • Reconstituted Complex: 1
  • Two-hybrid: 35

Genetic Interactions
  • Negative Genetic: 45
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 8
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 1
  • Positive Genetic: 1
  • Synthetic Lethality: 1

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 1,178
Molecular Weight (Da) 135,024
Isoelectric Point (pI) 5.51
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrXVI:664673 to 661137 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Note: this feature is encoded on the Crick strand.
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..3537 664673..661137 2011-02-03 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000006253

about the Cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway

Cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) is a constitutive and specific form of autophagy that uses autophagosomal-like vesicles for selective transport of hydrolases aminopeptidase I (Lap4p) and alpha-mannosidase (Ams1p) to the vacuole (2, 5). Unlike autophagy, which is primarily a catabolic process, Cvt is a biosynthetic process. Like autophagosomes, Cvt vesicles form at a structure known as the phagophore assembly site (PAS) (also called the pre-autophagosomal structure). The PAS structure generates an isolation membrane (IM), which expands and eventually fuses along the edges to complete vesicle formation. At the vacuole, the outer membrane of the Cvt vesicle fuses with the vacuolar membrane, the vesicle is degraded, and the cargos are released and processed into their mature forms by vacuolar peptidases (reviewed in 8). The Cvt pathway has not been observed outside of yeast, and enzymes specifically involved in this pathway are not well conserved in other organisms (9 and references therein).

about ATG11

ATG11 encodes a phosphoprotein that is the adapter protein required for cargo loading in pexophagy and the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway (4, 6, reviewed in 10). Atg11p directs receptor-bound cargo (known as the Cvt complex) to the PAS through direct interactions with the receptor protein Atg19p (5). Atg11p dissociates from the Cvt complex and is recycled at some unknown point before vesicle completion (reviewed in 10). Atg11p is also required for the recruitment of other proteins to the PAS during Cvt vesicle formation and for Atg9p anterograde transport from the mitochondria to the PAS (6, 11, 12). Atg11p also self-associates, in a manner negatively regulated by the Atg1p kinase, but the function of these homo-dimers/homo-oligomers are yet unknown (5, reviewed in 10).

atg11 mutant strains are defective in Cvt vesicle formation and sporulation, and have shortened telomeres (11, 13, 14). ATG11 homologs have been identified in all yeast species and most filamentous fungi studied to date, but no ATG11 ortholog has yet been identified in higher eukaryotes (9).

about autophagy nomenclature

The initial identification of factors involved in autophagy was carried out by several independent labs, which led to a proliferation of nomenclature for the genes and gene products involved. The differing gene name acronyms from these groups included APG, AUT, CVT, GSA, PAG, PAZ, and PDD (1 and references therein). A concerted effort was made in 2003 by the scientists working in the field to unify the nomenclature for these genes, and "AuTophaGy-related" genes are now denoted by the letters ATG (1). In addition to the ATG gene names that have been assigned to S. cerevisiae proteins and their orthologs, several ATG gene names, including ATG25, ATG28, and ATG30, have been used to designate proteins in other ascomycete yeast species for which there is no identifiable equivalent in S. cerevisiae (9, 15).

Last updated: 2008-04-23 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for ATG11
1) Klionsky DJ, et al.  (2003) A unified nomenclature for yeast autophagy-related genes. Dev Cell 5(4):539-45
2) Harding TM, et al.  (1996) Genetic and phenotypic overlap between autophagy and the cytoplasm to vacuole protein targeting pathway. J Biol Chem 271(30):17621-4
3) Lynch-Day MA and Klionsky DJ  (2010) The Cvt pathway as a model for selective autophagy. FEBS Lett 584(7):1359-66
4) Kim J, et al.  (2001) Cvt9/Gsa9 functions in sequestering selective cytosolic cargo destined for the vacuole. J Cell Biol 153(2):381-96
5) Yorimitsu T and Klionsky DJ  (2005) Atg11 links cargo to the vesicle-forming machinery in the cytoplasm to vacuole targeting pathway. Mol Biol Cell 16(4):1593-605
6) Cheong H, et al.  (2008) The Atg1 Kinase Complex Is Involved in the Regulation of Protein Recruitment to Initiate Sequestering Vesicle Formation for Nonspecific Autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell 19(2):668-81
7) Mao K, et al.  (2013) The scaffold protein Atg11 recruits fission machinery to drive selective mitochondria degradation by autophagy. Dev Cell 26(1):9-18
8) Kim J and Klionsky DJ  (2000) Autophagy, cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting pathway, and pexophagy in yeast and mammalian cells. Annu Rev Biochem 69:303-42
9) Meijer WH, et al.  (2007) ATG genes involved in non-selective autophagy are conserved from yeast to man, but the selective Cvt and pexophagy pathways also require organism-specific genes. Autophagy 3(2):106-16
10) Yorimitsu T and Klionsky DJ  (2005) Autophagy: molecular machinery for self-eating. Cell Death Differ 12 Suppl 2():1542-52
11) Shintani T and Klionsky DJ  (2004) Cargo proteins facilitate the formation of transport vesicles in the cytoplasm to vacuole targeting pathway. J Biol Chem 279(29):29889-94
12) He C, et al.  (2006) Recruitment of Atg9 to the preautophagosomal structure by Atg11 is essential for selective autophagy in budding yeast. J Cell Biol 175(6):925-35
13) Enyenihi AH and Saunders WS  (2003) Large-scale functional genomic analysis of sporulation and meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 163(1):47-54
14) Askree SH, et al.  (2004) A genome-wide screen for Saccharomyces cerevisiae deletion mutants that affect telomere length. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101(23):8658-63
15) Farre JC, et al.  (2008) PpAtg30 tags peroxisomes for turnover by selective autophagy. Dev Cell 14(3):365-76