CEN9 Summary Help

Standard Name CEN9
Feature Type centromere
Description Chromosome IX centromere (1 and see Summary Paragraph)
Chromosomal Location
ChrIX:355629 to 355745 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Gbrowse
sequence information
ChrIX:355629 to 355745 | ORF Map | GBrowse
SGD ORF map
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 2006-05-09
Subfeature details
Relative
Coordinates
Chromosomal
Coordinates
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDEI 1..10 355629..355638 2011-02-03 2004-10-05
CDEII 11..92 355639..355720 2011-02-03 2004-10-05
CDEIII 93..117 355721..355745 2011-02-03 2004-10-05
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
Resources
External Links All Associated Seq | Search all NCBI (Entrez)
Primary SGDIDS000006470
SUMMARY PARAGRAPH for CEN9

Each S. cerevisiae chromosome contains a single centromere that is necessary and sufficient for accurate chromosomal segregation during mitosis and meiosis (2). In S. cerevisiae, each of the sixteen centromeres (CEN1-CEN16) is approximately 125 base pairs (bp) long and can be subdivided into three consensus elements: CDEI, CDEII, and CDEIII. CDEI and CDEIII are 8 bp and 26 bp imperfect palindromes, respectively, while CDEII is an AT-rich sequence of 78-86 bp that lies between CDEI and CDEIII (reviewed in 3). CDEII and CDEIII are essential for centromere function (4, 5). In contrast to the compact organization of the S. cerevisiae centromere, centromeres in S. pombe and higher eukaryotes are much larger (40-100 kb for S. pombe and several Mb for humans) and contain a variety of repetitive elements.

The centromeric region of the chromosome is the site that mediates assembly of the kinetochore, a multiprotein structure consisting of at least 8 protein complexes, to which spindle microtubules attach to facilitate chromosome segregation during mitosis and meiosis. Kinetochore assembly is thought to occur in three layers, called the inner, central, and outer layers, as interactions among some complexes exhibit a hierarchical interdependence (reviewed in 6). Assembly begins with the interaction of inner centromere binding proteins that directly bind to centromeric DNA. The essential CBF3 complex, consisting of Cep3p, Cbf2p/Ndc10p, Ctf13p, and Skp1p, binds to CDEIII; this interaction may function to nucleate kinetochore assembly (7). Cbf2p/Ndc10p alone binds to CDEII over a region of 80 base pairs, suggesting that a multimeric structure is formed (8). The non-essential Cbf1p homodimer binds to CDEI and induces DNA bending, which is thought to be important for stabilizing kinetochore structure (9). Mif2p also likely interacts directly with the centromeric DNA, although it is not yet entirely clear where it binds (10, 7). Cse4p is likely a component of a specialized centromeric nucleosome (11). The additional central and outer kinetochore complexes then assemble onto the inner layer to form a functional kinetochore.

For detailed models showing kinetochore assembly, see Figure 6 of Meluh and Koshland, Figure 3 of McAinsh, et al., or Figure 6 of Espelin, et al. Click on the figure for a schematic diagram of the centromere and centromere binding proteins.

figure 1

Last updated: 2004-10-11 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for CEN9
1) Mortimer RK and Schild D  (1980) Genetic map of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiol Rev 44(4):519-71
2) Cottarel G, et al.  (1989) A 125-base-pair CEN6 DNA fragment is sufficient for complete meiotic and mitotic centromere functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 9(8):3342-9
3) Lechner J and Ortiz J  (1996) The Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinetochore. FEBS Lett 389(1):70-4
4) Sears DD, et al.  (1995) Cis-acting determinants affecting centromere function, sister-chromatid cohesion and reciprocal recombination during meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 139(3):1159-73
5) McGrew J, et al.  (1986) Single base-pair mutations in centromere element III cause aberrant chromosome segregation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 6(2):530-8
6) McAinsh AD, et al.  (2003) Structure, function, and regulation of budding yeast kinetochores. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 19():519-39
7) Meluh PB and Koshland D  (1997) Budding yeast centromere composition and assembly as revealed by in vivo cross-linking. Genes Dev 11(24):3401-12
8) Espelin CW, et al.  (2003) Binding of the essential Saccharomyces cerevisiae kinetochore protein Ndc10p to CDEII. Mol Biol Cell 14(11):4557-68
9) Hyman AA and Sorger PK  (1995) Structure and function of kinetochores in budding yeast. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 11():471-95
10) Meluh PB, et al.  (1998) Cse4p is a component of the core centromere of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Cell 94(5):607-13
11) Westermann S, et al.  (2003) Architecture of the budding yeast kinetochore reveals a conserved molecular core. J Cell Biol 163(2):215-22