ATP4/YPL078C Summary Help

Standard Name ATP4
Systematic Name YPL078C
Alias LPF7
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Subunit b of the stator stalk of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; ATP synthase is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; contributes to the oligomerization of the complex, which in turn determines the shape of inner membrane cristae; phosphorylated (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description ATP synthase
Chromosomal Location
ChrXVI:408744 to 408010 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Note: this feature is encoded on the Crick strand.
Gene Ontology Annotations All ATP4 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for ATP4
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Regulators 2 genes
Classical genetics
Large-scale survey
92 total interaction(s) for 66 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 16
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 2
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 6
  • Biochemical Activity: 1
  • Co-fractionation: 1
  • Co-purification: 19
  • PCA: 1
  • Reconstituted Complex: 5
  • Two-hybrid: 5

Genetic Interactions
  • Negative Genetic: 25
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 1
  • Positive Genetic: 6
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 2
  • Synthetic Lethality: 1
  • Synthetic Rescue: 1

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 244
Molecular Weight (Da) 26,925
Isoelectric Point (pI) 9.92
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrXVI:408744 to 408010 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Note: this feature is encoded on the Crick strand.
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..735 408744..408010 2011-02-03 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | E.C. | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000005999

ATP4 encodes subunit b of mitochondrial ATP synthase (1). The ATP synthase complex utilizes proton motive force to generate ATP from ADP and Pi (6). The structure of this enzyme complex is highly conserved among diverse organisms and consists of two major components, soluble F1 and membrane-bound F0, each of which contains many subunits. F1 and F0 are connected, both functionally and physically, via two additional multi-subunit structures, the central stalk and the stator stalk. Subunit b is part of the stator stalk, a stationary structure necessary for the productive transmission of rotary motion from the F0 proton pump to the F1 catalytic core (6 and 7 and references therein).

Although ATP4 is essential for ATP synthase function, it is not essential for life in yeast. Deletion of ATP4, like deletions in many genes necessary for the function or maintenance of mitochondria, leads to a "petite" phenotype that is slow-growing and unable to survive on nonfermentable carbon sources (8).

General ATP synthase structure and function are reviewed in references 6 and 7. For a review that is specific to yeast, see reference 9.

Last updated: 2001-01-16 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for ATP4
1) Velours J, et al.  (1988) ATP4, the structural gene for yeast F0F1 ATPase subunit 4. Eur J Biochem 170(3):637-42
2) Soubannier V, et al.  (1999) The second stalk of the yeast ATP synthase complex: identification of subunits showing cross-links with known positions of subunit 4 (subunit b). Biochemistry 38(45):15017-24
3) Reinders J, et al.  (2007) Profiling phosphoproteins of yeast mitochondria reveals a role of phosphorylation in assembly of the ATP synthase. Mol Cell Proteomics 6(11):1896-906
4) Weimann T, et al.  (2008) The intermembrane space loop of subunit B (4) is a major determinant of the stability of yeast oligomeric ATP synthases. Biochemistry 47(11):3556-63
5) Davies KM, et al.  (2012) Structure of the yeast F1Fo-ATP synthase dimer and its role in shaping the mitochondrial cristae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(34):13602-7
6) Boyer PD  (1997) The ATP synthase--a splendid molecular machine. Annu Rev Biochem 66:717-49
7) Nakamoto RK, et al.  (1999) Rotational coupling in the F0F1 ATP synthase. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct 28():205-34
8) Velours J, et al.  (1989) The yeast ATP synthase subunit 4: structure and function. Biochimie 71(8):903-15
9) Devenish RJ, et al.  (2000) Insights into ATP synthase assembly and function through the molecular genetic manipulation of subunits of the yeast mitochondrial enzyme complex. Biochim Biophys Acta 1458(2-3):428-42