ATP2/YJR121W Summary Help

Standard Name ATP2
Systematic Name YJR121W
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Beta subunit of the F1 sector of mitochondrial F1F0 ATP synthase; which is a large, evolutionarily conserved enzyme complex required for ATP synthesis; F1 translationally regulates ATP6 and ATP8 expression to achieve a balanced output of ATP synthase genes encoded in nucleus and mitochondria; phosphorylated (1, 2, 3 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description ATP synthase
Chromosomal Location
ChrX:647607 to 649142 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Gene Ontology Annotations All ATP2 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for ATP2
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Regulators 2 genes
Classical genetics
Large-scale survey
127 total interaction(s) for 73 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 39
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 4
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 3
  • Co-fractionation: 1
  • Co-purification: 45
  • Reconstituted Complex: 1
  • Two-hybrid: 2

Genetic Interactions
  • Dosage Rescue: 1
  • Negative Genetic: 9
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 1
  • Positive Genetic: 6
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 2
  • Synthetic Rescue: 13

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 511
Molecular Weight (Da) 54,793
Isoelectric Point (pI) 5.5
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrX:647607 to 649142 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..1536 647607..649142 2011-02-03 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | E.C. | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000003882

ATP2 encodes the beta subunit of mitochondrial F1-ATP synthase complex (4). The F0F1-ATP synthase complex can synthesize and hydrolyze ATP using a transmembrane proton gradient (5). The structure of this enzyme complex is highly conserved among diverse organisms and consists of two major components, soluble F1 and membrane-bound F0, each of which contains many subunits (6). The catalytic core of the enzyme resides in the F1 component and consists of a hexamer of alternating alpha (Atp1p) and beta subunits (7, 8). These three alpha-beta dimers each provide one of ATP synthase's three catalytic sites. Although isolated beta subunits are capable of binding nucleotide, both alpha and beta subunits are thought to contribute to nucleotide binding and catalysis (5).

Although ATP2 is essential for ATP synthase function, it is not essential for life in yeast. Deletion of ATP2, like deletions in many genes necessary for the function or maintenance of mitochondria, lead to a "petite" phenotype that is slow-growing and unable to survive on nonfermentable carbon sources (4). The 3' untranslated region of the ATP2 mRNA contains a sequence element that mediates localization of the mRNA to mitochondria; mutation of this element also results in a growth defect on nonfermentable carbon sources (9).

General ATP synthase structure and function are reviewed in references 5 and 10. For a review that is specific to yeast, see reference 6.

Last updated: 2007-10-23 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for ATP2
1) Takeda M, et al.  (1985) Nuclear genes coding the yeast mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase complex. Primary sequence analysis of ATP2 encoding the F1-ATPase beta-subunit precursor. J Biol Chem 260(29):15458-65
2) Reinders J, et al.  (2007) Profiling phosphoproteins of yeast mitochondria reveals a role of phosphorylation in assembly of the ATP synthase. Mol Cell Proteomics 6(11):1896-906
3) Rak M and Tzagoloff A  (2009) F1-dependent translation of mitochondrially encoded Atp6p and Atp8p subunits of yeast ATP synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106(44):18509-14
4) Saltzgaber-Muller J, et al.  (1983) Nuclear genes coding the yeast mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase complex. Isolation of ATP2 coding the F1-ATPase beta subunit. J Biol Chem 258(19):11465-70
5) Boyer PD  (1997) The ATP synthase--a splendid molecular machine. Annu Rev Biochem 66:717-49
6) Devenish RJ, et al.  (2000) Insights into ATP synthase assembly and function through the molecular genetic manipulation of subunits of the yeast mitochondrial enzyme complex. Biochim Biophys Acta 1458(2-3):428-42
7) Abrahams JP, et al.  (1993) Inherent asymmetry of the structure of F1-ATPase from bovine heart mitochondria at 6.5 A resolution. EMBO J 12(5):1775-80
8) Abrahams JP, et al.  (1994) Structure at 2.8 A resolution of F1-ATPase from bovine heart mitochondria. Nature 370(6491):621-8
9) Liu JM and Liu DR  (2007) Discovery of a mRNA mitochondrial localization element in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by nonhomologous random recombination and in vivo selection. Nucleic Acids Res 35(20):6750-61
10) Nakamoto RK, et al.  (1999) Rotational coupling in the F0F1 ATP synthase. Annu Rev Biophys Biomol Struct 28():205-34