ATG19/YOL082W Summary Help

Standard Name ATG19 1
Systematic Name YOL082W
Alias CVT19 2
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Receptor protein for the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway; delivers cargo proteins aminopeptidase I (Ape1p) and alpha-mannosidase (Ams1p) to the phagophore assembly site for packaging into Cvt vesicles (2, 3, 4 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description AuTophaGy related 1
Chromosomal Location
ChrXV:168727 to 169974 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Gbrowse
Gene Ontology Annotations All ATG19 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for ATG19
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Regulators 10 genes
Resources
Classical genetics
null
overexpression
reduction of function
Large-scale survey
null
overexpression
Resources
89 total interaction(s) for 54 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 10
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 1
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 12
  • Biochemical Activity: 5
  • Co-localization: 1
  • Protein-peptide: 1
  • Reconstituted Complex: 11
  • Two-hybrid: 30

Genetic Interactions
  • Negative Genetic: 2
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 1
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 1
  • Positive Genetic: 13
  • Synthetic Lethality: 1

Resources
Expression Summary
histogram
Resources
Length (a.a.) 415
Molecular Weight (Da) 47,599
Isoelectric Point (pI) 4.53
Localization
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
Structure
Homologs
sequence information
ChrXV:168727 to 169974 | ORF Map | GBrowse
SGD ORF map
Last Update Coordinates: 2006-01-05 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Relative
Coordinates
Chromosomal
Coordinates
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..1248 168727..169974 2006-01-05 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
Resources
External Links All Associated Seq | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000005442
SUMMARY PARAGRAPH for ATG19

about the Cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway

Cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) is a constitutive and specific form of autophagy that uses autophagosomal-like vesicles for selective transport of hydrolases aminopeptidase I (Lap4p) and alpha-mannosidase (Ams1p) to the vacuole (5, 6). Unlike autophagy, which is primarily a catabolic process, Cvt is a biosynthetic process. Like autophagosomes, Cvt vesicles form at a structure known as the phagophore assembly site (PAS) (also called the pre-autophagosomal structure). The PAS structure generates an isolation membrane (IM), which expands and eventually fuses along the edges to complete vesicle formation. At the vacuole, the outer membrane of the Cvt vesicle fuses with the vacuolar membrane, the vesicle is degraded, and the cargos are released and processed into their mature forms by vacuolar peptidases (reviewed in 7). The Cvt pathway has not been observed outside of yeast, and enzymes specifically involved in this pathway are not well conserved in other organisms (8 and references therein).

about ATG19

ATG19 encodes the receptor protein required for cargo loading in the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway (3, 2). Atg19p binds to unprocessed, pro-forms of aminopeptidase I and alpha-mannosidase and brings them to the preautophagosomal structure (PAS), the origin of both autophagic and Cvt vesicles (4, 3, 9). PAS localization is dependent on Atg19p interactions with Atg11p, the Cvt adapter protein, and Atg8p, a ubiquitin-like protein which appears to be required for membrane tethering and hemifusion (10). Atg19p is incorporated, along with the cargo, into the Cvt vesicle and is eventually degraded by vacuolar proteinases (reviewed in 11).

Atg19p is ubiquitinated on two lysine residues, Lys(213) and Lys(216), and deubiquitinated in a Ubp3p-dependent manner. These post-translational modifications affect cargo affinity, and both ubiquitination and deubiquitination are required for full Atg19p activity (12). atg19 deletion mutants are defective in Cvt vesicle formation, and overexpression of ATG19 inhibits filamentous growth (13, 14). ATG19 homologs have only been identified in other Saccharomyces species and conservation is very low (<27%) (8).

about autophagy nomenclature

The initial identification of factors involved in autophagy was carried out by several independent labs, which led to a proliferation of nomenclature for the genes and gene products involved. The differing gene name acronyms from these groups included APG, AUT, CVT, GSA, PAG, PAZ, and PDD (1 and references therein). A concerted effort was made in 2003 by the scientists working in the field to unify the nomenclature for these genes, and "AuTophaGy-related" genes are now denoted by the letters ATG (1). In addition to the ATG gene names that have been assigned to S. cerevisiae proteins and their orthologs, several ATG gene names, including ATG25, ATG28, and ATG30, have been used to designate proteins in other ascomycete yeast species for which there is no identifiable equivalent in S. cerevisiae (8, 15).

Last updated: 2008-04-23 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for ATG19
1) Klionsky DJ, et al.  (2003) A unified nomenclature for yeast autophagy-related genes. Dev Cell 5(4):539-45
2) Leber R, et al.  (2001) Yol082p, a novel CVT protein involved in the selective targeting of aminopeptidase I to the yeast vacuole. J Biol Chem 276(31):29210-7
3) Scott SV, et al.  (2001) Cvt19 is a receptor for the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting pathway. Mol Cell 7(6):1131-41
4) Shintani T, et al.  (2002) Mechanism of cargo selection in the cytoplasm to vacuole targeting pathway. Dev Cell 3(6):825-37
5) Harding TM, et al.  (1996) Genetic and phenotypic overlap between autophagy and the cytoplasm to vacuole protein targeting pathway. J Biol Chem 271(30):17621-4
6) Yorimitsu T and Klionsky DJ  (2005) Atg11 links cargo to the vesicle-forming machinery in the cytoplasm to vacuole targeting pathway. Mol Biol Cell 16(4):1593-605
7) Kim J and Klionsky DJ  (2000) Autophagy, cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting pathway, and pexophagy in yeast and mammalian cells. Annu Rev Biochem 69:303-42
8) Meijer WH, et al.  (2007) ATG genes involved in non-selective autophagy are conserved from yeast to man, but the selective Cvt and pexophagy pathways also require organism-specific genes. Autophagy 3(2):106-16
9) Kim J, et al.  (2002) Convergence of multiple autophagy and cytoplasm to vacuole targeting components to a perivacuolar membrane compartment prior to de novo vesicle formation. J Biol Chem 277(1):763-73
10) Chang CY and Huang WP  (2007) Atg19 mediates a dual interaction cargo sorting mechanism in selective autophagy. Mol Biol Cell 18(3):919-29
11) Yorimitsu T and Klionsky DJ  (2005) Autophagy: molecular machinery for self-eating. Cell Death Differ 12 Suppl 2():1542-52
12) Baxter BK, et al.  (2005) Atg19p ubiquitination and the cytoplasm to vacuole trafficking pathway in yeast. J Biol Chem 280(47):39067-76
13) Shintani T and Klionsky DJ  (2004) Cargo proteins facilitate the formation of transport vesicles in the cytoplasm to vacuole targeting pathway. J Biol Chem 279(29):29889-94
14) Ma J, et al.  (2007) Overexpression of autophagy-related genes inhibits yeast filamentous growth. Autophagy 3(6):604-9
15) Farre JC, et al.  (2008) PpAtg30 tags peroxisomes for turnover by selective autophagy. Dev Cell 14(3):365-76