SUMMARY PARAGRAPH for QCR2
The cytochrome bc1 complex (also known as ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase, ubiquinol:ferricytochrome c oxidoreductase, and respiratory complex III) is a highly conserved enzyme of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (reviewed in 4). In S. cerevisiae it consists of three catalytic subunits, Cobp, Rip1p, and Cyt1p, plus seven additional subunits: Cor1p, Qcr2p, Qcr6p, Qcr7p, Qcr8p, Qcr9p, and Qcr10p (4, 5). The crystal structure of the complex shows that two functional units, each containing these ten subunits, associate with each other in the mitochondrial inner membrane (6). Assembly of a functional complex requires two proteins, Cbp3p and Cbp4p, that are not components of the complex but may associate with it during assembly (7). It also requires Bcs1p, an AAA-family ATPase that interacts with a precursor of the complex to mediate incorporation of the Rip1p and Qcr10p subunits (8). The mechanism of energy transfer by the complex, known as the protonmotive Q cycle, has been studied in detail (reviewed in 4). The net result of the Q cycle is the stepwise transfer of an electron through the complex from ubiquinol to cytochrome c (Cyc1p), coupled with the translocation of a proton across the mitochondrial inner membrane (4). The function of the cytochrome bc1 complex is essential to the energy-generating process of oxidative phosphorylation, which is carried out by the enzyme complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.
Qcr2p, Cor1p, and Qcr7p comprise a large domain of the cytochrome bc1 complex that extends into the mitochondrial matrix (4). Qcr2p, one of the so-called "core" subunits, is very important for activity of the cytochrome bc1 complex; the null mutation has been described as causing either a severe decrease or a total block in complex III activity and respiratory growth (2, 9). These defects can be suppressed by a point mutation in the mitochondrial cob gene encoding cytochrome b (10). QCR2 is conserved across eukaryotes (11) and is homologous to human UQCRC2 (12; OMIM).
Last updated: 2007-07-26