RED1/YLR263W Summary Help

Standard Name RED1 1
Systematic Name YLR263W
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Protein component of the synaptonemal complex axial elements; involved in chromosome segregation during the first meiotic division; critical for coupling checkpoint signaling to SC formation; promotes interhomolog recombination by phosphorylating Hop1p; also interacts with Mec3p and Ddc1p; (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description REDuctional division 1
Chromosomal Location
ChrXII:670340 to 672823 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Gene Ontology Annotations All RED1 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for RED1
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Regulators 3 genes
Classical genetics
Large-scale survey
69 total interaction(s) for 44 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 1
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 9
  • Biochemical Activity: 3
  • Reconstituted Complex: 1
  • Two-hybrid: 14

Genetic Interactions
  • Dosage Growth Defect: 4
  • Dosage Lethality: 3
  • Dosage Rescue: 8
  • Negative Genetic: 12
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 1
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 5
  • Synthetic Lethality: 2
  • Synthetic Rescue: 6

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 827
Molecular Weight (Da) 95,538
Isoelectric Point (pI) 7.16
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrXII:670340 to 672823 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..2484 670340..672823 2011-02-03 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000004253

Red1p, Hop1p, and Mek1p are components of the axial element protein cores in synaptonemal complexes (6). Synaptonemal complexes are found at synapses between homologous chromosomes during meiosis, and form when sister chromatids condense upon axial elements (6). Maintenance of appropriate stoichiometry between Red1p, Hop1p, and Mek1p is important for effective chromosome segregation and for the meiotic recombination checkpoint (3). Red1p, Hop1p and Mek1p are also necessary for normal levels of double-strand break (DSB) formation (7), and are required to ensure that crossovers occur between homologous chromosomes and not between sister chromatids (3). Red1p is a multifunctional protein required for maximum activity of Mek1p, interaction between Mek1p and Hop1p, sister chromatid cohesion, establishment of interhomolog bias at double Holliday junctions, and for proper timing of the first meiotic division (3, 8, 9, 10).

Red1p is also required for the localization of Ddc1p to chromosomes, and Dmc1p localization to DSBs. Further, Red1p may be required to limit Spo11p to the core area of meiotic recombination hotspots, possibly by preventing additional Spo11p from binding to the flanking regions (11, 7).

RED1 is induced early in meiosis, and Red1p is present on chromosomes during zygotene prior to Hop1p, remains on chromosomes during pachytene after Hop1p has left, and begins to dissociate from chromosomes in late pachytene or early diplotene (9, 12). Condensin, a multisubunit protein complex that plays a central role in the condensation of chromosomes, is required for the proper chromosome localization of Red1p (13). Although it has been suggested that Red1p is phosphorylated by Mek1p, it now appears that phosphorylation of Red1p depends on meiotic recombination, but not Mek1p (12, 3). Red1p is dephosphorylated by Glc7p (12).

red1 null mutants display reduced numbers of initiating chromosomal breaks and interhomolog double Holliday junctions, but display approximately normal levels of intersister double Holliday junctions (10). This leads to an overall reduction in levels of meiotic recombination, and the crossovers that do occur do not promote proper meiotic chromosome segregation (8, 6). red1 mutants also display reduced spore viability due to massive nondisjunction, reduced levels of Dmc1p loading onto DSBs during meiosis, and have a partial defect in sister chromatid cohesion (3, 6). Deletion of RED1 suppresses the prophase arrest observed in several mutants such as mnd1 null, rad50S, dmc1 null, and sae2 null which are defective for meiotic DSB repair, suggesting that lack of Red1p allows DSB repair to proceed, probably via a mitosis-like intersister-exchange pathway independent of the meiosis-specific repair machinery (10). Red1p overproduction alters meiotic chromosome morphology, decreases the number of DSBs, decreases the level of meiotic recombination, and suppresses the sporulation defects in mutants such as zip1, zip2, dmc1, and hop2 that undergo pachytene checkpoint-mediated arrest (14).

Red1p is capable of homo-oligomerization through its carboxy terminus (9), and exhibits similarity to Kluyveromyces lactis RED1 (14).

Last updated: 2005-10-14 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for RED1
1) Rockmill B and Roeder GS  (1988) RED1: a yeast gene required for the segregation of chromosomes during the reductional division of meiosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 85(16):6057-61
2) Smith AV and Roeder GS  (1997) The yeast Red1 protein localizes to the cores of meiotic chromosomes. J Cell Biol 136(5):957-67
3) Wan L, et al.  (2004) Mek1 kinase activity functions downstream of RED1 in the regulation of meiotic double strand break repair in budding yeast. Mol Biol Cell 15(1):11-23
4) Eichinger CS and Jentsch S  (2010) Synaptonemal complex formation and meiotic checkpoint signaling are linked to the lateral element protein Red1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 107(25):11370-5
5) Lo YH, et al.  (2014) Pch2 prevents mec1/tel1-mediated hop1 phosphorylation occurring independently of red1 in budding yeast meiosis. PLoS One 9(1):e85687
6) de Los Santos T, et al.  (2001) A role for MMS4 in the processing of recombination intermediates during meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 159(4):1511-25
7) Prieler S, et al.  (2005) The control of Spo11's interaction with meiotic recombination hotspots. Genes Dev 19(2):255-69
8) Malone RE, et al.  (2004) The signal from the initiation of meiotic recombination to the first division of meiosis. Eukaryot Cell 3(3):598-609
9) Woltering D, et al.  (2000) Meiotic segregation, synapsis, and recombination checkpoint functions require physical interaction between the chromosomal proteins Red1p and Hop1p. Mol Cell Biol 20(18):6646-58
10) Zierhut C, et al.  (2004) Mnd1 is required for meiotic interhomolog repair. Curr Biol 14(9):752-62
11) Hong EJ and Roeder GS  (2002) A role for Ddc1 in signaling meiotic double-strand breaks at the pachytene checkpoint. Genes Dev 16(3):363-76
12) Bailis JM and Roeder GS  (2000) Pachytene exit controlled by reversal of Mek1-dependent phosphorylation. Cell 101(2):211-21
13) Yu HG and Koshland DE  (2003) Meiotic condensin is required for proper chromosome compaction, SC assembly, and resolution of recombination-dependent chromosome linkages. J Cell Biol 163(5):937-47
14) Bailis JM, et al.  (2000) Bypass of a meiotic checkpoint by overproduction of meiotic chromosomal proteins. Mol Cell Biol 20(13):4838-48