RAD2/YGR258C Summary Help

Standard Name RAD2
Systematic Name YGR258C
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Single-stranded DNA endonuclease; cleaves single-stranded DNA during nucleotide excision repair to excise damaged DNA; subunit of Nucleotide Excision Repair Factor 3 (NEF3); homolog of human XPG protein (1, 2 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description RADiation sensitive
Chromosomal Location
ChrVII:1010766 to 1007671 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Note: this feature is encoded on the Crick strand.
Genetic position: 192 cM
Gene Ontology Annotations All RAD2 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for RAD2
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Regulators 4 genes
Classical genetics
reduction of function
Large-scale survey
66 total interaction(s) for 45 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 2
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 5
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 5
  • Biochemical Activity: 1
  • Co-crystal Structure: 1
  • Co-localization: 1
  • Co-purification: 4
  • PCA: 1
  • Reconstituted Complex: 6
  • Two-hybrid: 5

Genetic Interactions
  • Dosage Rescue: 1
  • Negative Genetic: 3
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 16
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 3
  • Positive Genetic: 1
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 7
  • Synthetic Lethality: 1
  • Synthetic Rescue: 3

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 1,031
Molecular Weight (Da) 117,837
Isoelectric Point (pI) 4.92
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrVII:1010766 to 1007671 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Note: this feature is encoded on the Crick strand.
Genetic position: 192 cM
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..3096 1010766..1007671 2011-02-03 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | E.C. | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000003490

In S. cerevisiae, nucleotide excision repair (NER) is mediated by Rad1p, Rad2p, Rad4p, Rad7p, Rad10p, Rad14p, Rad16p, Met18p, the transcription factor TFIIH, and the heterotrimeric complex RPA (Rfa1p, Rfa2p, Rfa3p). Together these proteins bind DNA lesions, including UV-induced photoproducts and chemical crosslinks, unwind the surrounding duplex, and make incisions on both sides of the damaged DNA, which releases a fragment of 25-30bp (reviewed in 1, 3).

Rad2p is an endonuclease that makes the incision 3' of the site of damage during nucleotide excision repair (NER) (4, 5, 6). Rad2p forms the nucleotide excision factor 3 (NEF3) with a subset of subunits of the transcription factor TFIIH (7). Although not a subunit of TFIIH, RAD2 is required for efficient transcription (8). Rad2p also interacts with genes involved in other DNA repair pathways, including mismatch repair and base excision repair (9, 10). As a member of extended family of nucleases that include Rad27p and Exo1p, Rad2p exhibits a 5' to 3' exonuclease activity in vitro and is proposed to be involved in base excision repair in the absence of Rad27p (11, 10).

Expression of RAD2 is induced in response to UV in alpha-factor arrested or stationary phase cells (12, 13). In addition, RAD2 is induced during meiosis although its meiotic role is unclear (14, 15, 12)

Rad2p is related to H. sapiens XPG, also known as ERCC5, which is mutated in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and Cockayne's syndrome (16, 17). These diseases are collectively known as xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group G. Deletion of the carboxy terminus of S. cerevisiae Rad2p that mimics the mutation found in a patient witih XP results in a defect in transcription (8).

Last updated: 2007-11-07 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for RAD2
1) Prakash S and Prakash L  (2000) Nucleotide excision repair in yeast. Mutat Res 451(1-2):13-24
2) de Laat WL, et al.  (1999) Molecular mechanism of nucleotide excision repair. Genes Dev 13(7):768-85
3) Hoeijmakers JH  (1993) Nucleotide excision repair I: from E. coli to yeast. Trends Genet 9(5):173-7
4) Habraken Y, et al.  (1993) Yeast excision repair gene RAD2 encodes a single-stranded DNA endonuclease. Nature 366(6453):365-8
5) Guzder SN, et al.  (1995) Reconstitution of yeast nucleotide excision repair with purified Rad proteins, replication protein A, and transcription factor TFIIH. J Biol Chem 270(22):12973-6
6) Harrington JJ and Lieber MR  (1994) Functional domains within FEN-1 and RAD2 define a family of structure-specific endonucleases: implications for nucleotide excision repair. Genes Dev 8(11):1344-55
7) Habraken Y, et al.  (1996) Transcription factor TFIIH and DNA endonuclease Rad2 constitute yeast nucleotide excision repair factor 3: implications for nucleotide excision repair and Cockayne syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93(20):10718-22
8) Lee SK, et al.  (2002) Requirement of yeast RAD2, a homolog of human XPG gene, for efficient RNA polymerase II transcription. implications for Cockayne syndrome. Cell 109(7):823-34
9) Bertrand P, et al.  (1998) Physical interaction between components of DNA mismatch repair and nucleotide excision repair. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95(24):14278-83
10) Sun X, et al.  (2003) Complementary functions of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad2 family nucleases in Okazaki fragment maturation, mutation avoidance, and chromosome stability. DNA Repair (Amst) 2(8):925-40
11) Habraken Y, et al.  (1994) A conserved 5' to 3' exonuclease activity in the yeast and human nucleotide excision repair proteins RAD2 and XPG. J Biol Chem 269(50):31342-5
12) Siede W, et al.  (1989) Regulation of the RAD2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Microbiol 3(12):1697-707
13) Siede W and Friedberg EC  (1992) Regulation of the yeast RAD2 gene: DNA damage-dependent induction correlates with protein binding to regulatory sequences and their deletion influences survival. Mol Gen Genet 232(2):247-56
14) Kirkpatrick DT  (1999) Roles of the DNA mismatch repair and nucleotide excision repair proteins during meiosis. Cell Mol Life Sci 55(3):437-49
15) Madura K and Prakash S  (1990) The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA repair gene RAD2 is regulated in meiosis but not during the mitotic cell cycle. Mol Cell Biol 10(6):3256-7
16) Shiomi T, et al.  (1994) An ERCC5 gene with homology to yeast RAD2 is involved in group G xeroderma pigmentosum. Mutat Res 314(2):167-75
17) Scherly D, et al.  (1993) Complementation of the DNA repair defect in xeroderma pigmentosum group G cells by a human cDNA related to yeast RAD2. Nature 363(6425):182-5