ATG31/YDR022C Summary Help

Standard Name ATG31 1
Systematic Name YDR022C
Alias CIS1 2
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Autophagy-specific protein required for autophagosome formation; may form a complex with Atg17p and Atg29p that localizes other proteins to the pre-autophagosomal structure; high-copy suppressor of CIK1 deletion (1, 2, 3 and see Summary Paragraph)
Name Description AuTophaGy related 4
Chromosomal Location
ChrIV:488662 to 488072 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Note: this feature is encoded on the Crick strand.
Gbrowse
Gene Ontology Annotations All ATG31 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for ATG31
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
High-throughput
Regulators 5 genes
Resources
Classical genetics
null
Large-scale survey
null
Resources
36 total interaction(s) for 26 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 5
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 2
  • Affinity Capture-Western: 4
  • Biochemical Activity: 1
  • Co-purification: 1
  • Two-hybrid: 2

Genetic Interactions
  • Dosage Rescue: 2
  • Negative Genetic: 17
  • Positive Genetic: 2

Resources
Expression Summary
histogram
Resources
Length (a.a.) 196
Molecular Weight (Da) 22,191
Isoelectric Point (pI) 3.87
Localization
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
Structure
Homologs
sequence information
ChrIV:488662 to 488072 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Note: this feature is encoded on the Crick strand.
SGD ORF map
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Relative
Coordinates
Chromosomal
Coordinates
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..591 488662..488072 2011-02-03 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
Resources
External Links All Associated Seq | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000002429
SUMMARY PARAGRAPH for ATG31

about autophagy...

Autophagy is a highly conserved eukaryotic pathway for sequestering and transporting bulk cytoplasm, including proteins and organelle material, to the lysosome for degradation (reviewed in 5). Upon starvation for nutrients such as carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and various amino acids, or upon endoplasmic reticulum stress, cells initiate formation of a double-membrane vesicle, termed an autophagosome, that mediates this process (6, 7, reviewed in 8). Approximately 30 autophagy-related (Atg) proteins have been identified in S. cerevisiae, 17 of which are essential for formation of the autophagosome (reviewed in 9). Null mutations in most of these genes prevent induction of autophagy, and cells do not survive nutrient starvation; however, these mutants are viable in rich medium. Some of the Atg proteins are also involved in a constitutive biosynthetic process termed the cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway, which uses autophagosomal-like vesicles for selective transport of hydrolases aminopeptidase I (Lap4p) and alpha-mannosidase (Ams1p) to the vacuole (10, 11).

Autophagy proceeds via a multistep pathway (a summary diagram (download pdf) kindly provided by Dan Klionsky). First, nutrient availability is sensed by the TORC1 complex and also cooperatively by protein kinase A and Sch9p (12, 13). Second, signals generated by the sensors are transmitted to the autophagosome-generating machinery comprised of the 17 Atg gene products. These 17 proteins collectively form the pre-autophagosomal structure/phagophore assembly site (PAS). The PAS generates an isolation membrane (IM), which expands and eventually fuses along the edges to complete autophagosome formation. At the vacuole the outer membrane of the autophagosome fuses with the vacuolar membrane and autophagic bodies are released, disintegrated, and their contents degraded for reuse in biosynthesis (14 and reviewed in 9).

about CIS1

CIS1 (also known as ATG31) was originally identified as a suppressor of a mutation in CIK1 and encodes a protein that specifically functions in autophagy (2, 1, 3 and references therein). Cis1p interacts with Atg17p and localizes to the PAS in a Atg17p-dependent manner (1). Cis1p may form a complex with the autophagy-specific proteins Atg17p and Atg29p that is involved in localizing other ATG proteins to the PAS (3). cis1 mutants are defective in autophagy, sporulation, and survival under starvation conditions (1, 15).

about autophagy nomenclature

The initial identification of factors involved in autophagy was carried out by several independent labs, which led to a proliferation of nomenclature for the genes and gene products involved. The differing gene name acronyms from these groups included APG, AUT, CVT, GSA, PAG, PAZ, and PDD (4 and references therein). A concerted effort was made in 2003 by the scientists working in the field to unify the nomenclature for these genes, and "AuTophaGy-related" genes are now denoted by the letters ATG (4). In addition to the ATG gene names that have been assigned to S. cerevisiae proteins and their orthologs, several ATG gene names, including ATG25, ATG28, and ATG30, have been used to designate proteins in other ascomycete yeast species for which there is no identifiable equivalent in S. cerevisiae (16, 17).

Last updated: 2008-02-08 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for ATG31
1) Kabeya Y, et al.  (2007) Cis1/Atg31 is required for autophagosome formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 356(2):405-10
2) Manning BD, et al.  (1997) The Rho-GEF Rom2p localizes to sites of polarized cell growth and participates in cytoskeletal functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell 8(10):1829-44
3) Kawamata T, et al.  (2008) Organization of the Pre-autophagosomal Structure Responsible for Autophagosome Formation. Mol Biol Cell 19(5):2039-50
4) Klionsky DJ, et al.  (2003) A unified nomenclature for yeast autophagy-related genes. Dev Cell 5(4):539-45
5) Budovskaya YV, et al.  (2004) The Ras/cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling pathway regulates an early step of the autophagy process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem 279(20):20663-71
6) Takeshige K, et al.  (1992) Autophagy in yeast demonstrated with proteinase-deficient mutants and conditions for its induction. J Cell Biol 119(2):301-11
7) Matsuura A, et al.  (1997) Apg1p, a novel protein kinase required for the autophagic process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Gene 192(2):245-50
8) Yorimitsu T and Klionsky DJ  (2007) Endoplasmic reticulum stress: a new pathway to induce autophagy. Autophagy 3(2):160-2
9) Suzuki K and Ohsumi Y  (2007) Molecular machinery of autophagosome formation in yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEBS Lett 581(11):2156-61
10) Harding TM, et al.  (1996) Genetic and phenotypic overlap between autophagy and the cytoplasm to vacuole protein targeting pathway. J Biol Chem 271(30):17621-4
11) Yorimitsu T and Klionsky DJ  (2005) Atg11 links cargo to the vesicle-forming machinery in the cytoplasm to vacuole targeting pathway. Mol Biol Cell 16(4):1593-605
12) Yorimitsu T, et al.  (2007) Protein Kinase A and Sch9 Cooperatively Regulate Induction of Autophagy in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell 18(10):4180-9
13) Noda T and Ohsumi Y  (1998) Tor, a phosphatidylinositol kinase homologue, controls autophagy in yeast. J Biol Chem 273(7):3963-6
14) Suzuki K, et al.  (2001) The pre-autophagosomal structure organized by concerted functions of APG genes is essential for autophagosome formation. EMBO J 20(21):5971-81
15) Enyenihi AH and Saunders WS  (2003) Large-scale functional genomic analysis of sporulation and meiosis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 163(1):47-54
16) Meijer WH, et al.  (2007) ATG genes involved in non-selective autophagy are conserved from yeast to man, but the selective Cvt and pexophagy pathways also require organism-specific genes. Autophagy 3(2):106-16
17) Farre JC, et al.  (2008) PpAtg30 tags peroxisomes for turnover by selective autophagy. Dev Cell 14(3):365-76