GAT1/YFL021W Summary Help

Standard Name GAT1 1
Systematic Name YFL021W
Alias NIL1 2 , 3 , MEP80 4
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description Transcriptional activator of nitrogen catabolite repression genes; contains a GATA-1-type zinc finger DNA-binding motif; activity and localization regulated by nitrogen limitation and Ure2p; different translational starts produce two major and two minor isoforms that are differentially regulated and localized (5, 6, 7 and see Summary Paragraph)
Chromosomal Location
ChrVI:95966 to 97498 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Gene Ontology Annotations All GAT1 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for GAT1
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Manually curated
Targets 19 genes
Regulators 10 genes
Classical genetics
Large-scale survey
50 total interaction(s) for 34 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 6
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 2
  • Co-localization: 1
  • PCA: 2
  • Two-hybrid: 1

Genetic Interactions
  • Dosage Rescue: 6
  • Negative Genetic: 14
  • Phenotypic Enhancement: 9
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 1
  • Positive Genetic: 2
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 3
  • Synthetic Rescue: 3

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 510
Molecular Weight (Da) 56,327
Isoelectric Point (pI) 8.62
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrVI:95966 to 97498 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Last Update Coordinates: 2011-02-03 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..1533 95966..97498 2011-02-03 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000001873

GAT1 encodes a transcriptional activator that is involved in the positive regulation of genes subject to nitrogen catabolite repression (NCR) (8). Gat1p and Gln3p are both required for activation of NCR-sensitive genes, but the degree to which they influence the expression of a given gene is dependent on the individual gene as well as the nature and quality of the nitrogen source available in the media (9, 1, 2). As determined by sequence homology to Gln3p, Gat1p contains a zinc finger binding domain that binds to the sequence 5-GATAAG-3 in the UASNTR found in the promoters of many genes involved in nitrogen utilization (2, 10). Some of the genes under Gat1p regulation include the general amino acid permease gene GAP1, the glutamine synthetase gene GLN1 (2), and CAR1, ASP3, PUT1, and PUT2, which encode enzymes involved in the degradation of arginine, asparagine, and proline respectively (11, 12, 9).

Both the synthesis and the activity of Gat1p are regulated by the quality of environmental nitrogen. When cells are grown on nitrogen-poor media, GAT1 transcription is upregulated by Gln3p (1). Under nitrogen-rich conditions, downregulation of GAT1 transcription is mediated by the repressor Dal80p (1). Ssy1p, a component of the SPS sensor of extracellular amino acids, is also involved in regulating GAT1 expression (13).

When optimal nitrogen sources are available, pre-existing Gat1p is phosphorylated by the TOR kinases Tor1p and Tor2p (14). The phosphorylated form of Gat1p is bound by the regulatory protein Ure2p, which sequesters it in the cytosol, preventing transcription of NCR-sensitive genes (15). In contrast, when nitrogen is limiting, Gat1p is dephosphorylated by the phosphatase Sit4p, subsequently enters the nucleus, and interacts with the transcriptional co-activator Hfi1p to upregulate the expression of NCR-sensitive genes (14, 15, 16). There is also evidence to indicate that activation of Gat1p is dependent on the kinases Arg82p and Kcs1p (17) and antagonized by the transcription factor Gzf3p (18).

Last updated: 2005-10-11 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for GAT1
1) Coffman JA, et al.  (1996) Gat1p, a GATA family protein whose production is sensitive to nitrogen catabolite repression, participates in transcriptional activation of nitrogen-catabolic genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol 16(3):847-58
2) Stanbrough M, et al.  (1995) Role of the GATA factors Gln3p and Nil1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the expression of nitrogen-regulated genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92(21):9450-4
3) Stanbrough M and Magasanik B  (1995) Transcriptional and posttranslational regulation of the general amino acid permease of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol 177(1):94-102
4) Marini AM, et al.  (2000) Cross-talk between ammonium transporters in yeast and interference by the soybean SAT1 protein. Mol Microbiol 35(2):378-85
5) Kuruvilla FG, et al.  (2001) Carbon- and nitrogen-quality signaling to translation are mediated by distinct GATA-type transcription factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98(13):7283-8
6) Cooper T  (2002) Transmitting the signal of excess nitrogen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae from the Tor proteins to the GATA factors: connecting the dots. FEMS Microbiol Rev 26(3):223-38
7) Rai R, et al.  (2014) Constitutive and nitrogen catabolite repression-sensitive production of Gat1 isoforms. J Biol Chem 289(5):2918-33
8) Coffman JA, et al.  (1995) Genetic evidence for Gln3p-independent, nitrogen catabolite repression-sensitive gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol 177(23):6910-8
9) Saxena D, et al.  (2003) Rapamycin treatment results in GATA factor-independent hyperphosphorylation of the proline utilization pathway activator in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot Cell 2(3):552-9
10) Stanbrough M and Magasanik B  (1996) Two transcription factors, Gln3p and Nil1p, use the same GATAAG sites to activate the expression of GAP1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol 178(8):2465-8
11) Smart WC, et al.  (1996) Combinatorial regulation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAR1 (arginase) promoter in response to multiple environmental signals. Mol Cell Biol 16(10):5876-87
12) Oliveira EM, et al.  (2003) The role of the GATA factors Gln3p, Nil1p, Dal80p and the Ure2p on ASP3 regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast 20(1):31-7
13) Forsberg H, et al.  (2001) The role of the yeast plasma membrane SPS nutrient sensor in the metabolic response to extracellular amino acids. Mol Microbiol 42(1):215-28
14) Beck T and Hall MN  (1999) The TOR signalling pathway controls nuclear localization of nutrient-regulated transcription factors. Nature 402(6762):689-92
15) Cunningham TS, et al.  (2000) Nitrogen catabolite repression of DAL80 expression depends on the relative levels of Gat1p and Ure2p production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem 275(19):14408-14
16) Soussi-Boudekou S and Andre B  (1999) A co-activator of nitrogen-regulated transcription in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Microbiol 31(3):753-62
17) El Alami M, et al.  (2003) Arg82p is a bifunctional protein whose inositol polyphosphate kinase activity is essential for nitrogen and PHO gene expression but not for Mcm1p chaperoning in yeast. Mol Microbiol 49(2):457-68
18) Rowen DW, et al.  (1997) Role of GATA factor Nil2p in nitrogen regulation of gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Bacteriol 179(11):3761-6
19) Harbison CT, et al.  (2004) Transcriptional regulatory code of a eukaryotic genome. Nature 431(7004):99-104
20) Badis G, et al.  (2008) A library of yeast transcription factor motifs reveals a widespread function for Rsc3 in targeting nucleosome exclusion at promoters. Mol Cell 32(6):878-87
21) Zhu C, et al.  (2009) High-resolution DNA-binding specificity analysis of yeast transcription factors. Genome Res 19(4):556-66
22) van der Merwe GK, et al.  (2001) Cis-acting sites contributing to expression of divergently transcribed DAL1 and DAL4 genes in S. cerevisiae: a word of caution when correlating cis-acting sequences with genome-wide expression analyses. Curr Genet 39(3):156-65