GND1/YHR183W Summary Help

Standard Name GND1
Systematic Name YHR183W
Feature Type ORF, Verified
Description 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating); catalyzes an NADPH regenerating reaction in the pentose phosphate pathway; required for growth on D-glucono-delta-lactone and adaptation to oxidative stress; GND1 has a paralog, GND2, that arose from the whole genome duplication (1, 2, 3, 4 and see Summary Paragraph)
Chromosomal Location
ChrVIII:470960 to 472429 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Gene Ontology Annotations All GND1 GO evidence and references
  View Computational GO annotations for GND1
Molecular Function
Manually curated
Biological Process
Manually curated
Cellular Component
Regulators 15 genes
Classical genetics
Large-scale survey
152 total interaction(s) for 142 unique genes/features.
Physical Interactions
  • Affinity Capture-MS: 32
  • Affinity Capture-RNA: 4
  • Biochemical Activity: 2
  • Co-crystal Structure: 1
  • PCA: 3
  • Protein-peptide: 4
  • Reconstituted Complex: 1
  • Two-hybrid: 1

Genetic Interactions
  • Negative Genetic: 60
  • Phenotypic Suppression: 1
  • Positive Genetic: 37
  • Synthetic Growth Defect: 1
  • Synthetic Lethality: 5

Expression Summary
Length (a.a.) 489
Molecular Weight (Da) 53,543
Isoelectric Point (pI) 6.6
Phosphorylation PhosphoGRID | PhosphoPep Database
sequence information
ChrVIII:470960 to 472429 | ORF Map | GBrowse
Last Update Coordinates: 2005-11-07 | Sequence: 1996-07-31
Subfeature details
Most Recent Updates
Coordinates Sequence
CDS 1..1470 470960..472429 2005-11-07 1996-07-31
Retrieve sequences
Analyze Sequence
S288C only
S288C vs. other species
S288C vs. other strains
External Links All Associated Seq | E.C. | Entrez Gene | Entrez RefSeq Protein | MIPS | Search all NCBI (Entrez) | UniProtKB
Primary SGDIDS000001226

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, GND1 encodes the major isoform of phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, accounting for approximately 80% of activity, and GND2 encodes the minor isoform (1). Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (EC: is a key enzyme in the cytosolic oxidative branch of the pentose phosphate pathway (5), and catalyzes the second oxidative reduction of NADP+ to NADPH (3, 6, 1). Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase is also important for protecting yeast from oxidative stress, since NADPH is an essential cofactor for the Glr1p glutathione reductase as well as the Trr1p and Trr2p thioredoxin reductases, which defend cells against oxidative damage (2).

Gnd1p is of industrial interest for the fermentation of xylose to ethanol because NADPH is used in fungi to reduce pentoses like xylose, the predominant sugar found in biomass, to sugar alcohols (3). gnd1 null mutants are viable and display increased sensitivity to furfural, which is a growth inhibitory byproduct of xylose utilization (7). gnd1 nulls also display no growth on D-glucono-delta-lactone and no induction of 6-phosphogluconolactonase (SOL3 & SOL4) in response to D-glucono-delta-lactone (1). gnd1-100 mutants display increased FLO11 expression, increased invasion into agar, enhanced polar budding, and hyperfilamentation, which may depend on a glucose repression mechanism because these phenotypes do not occur in gnd1-100 snf1 null double mutants (8, 6). GND1 is induced during growth on D-glucono-delta-lactone (1), and is repressed during growth on ethanol or lactic acid (9). GND1 may also be repressed in zwf1 null mutants because of an insufficient supply of the substrate 6-phosphogluconate (2).

Gnd1p displays similarity to Gnd2p, and the 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenases of Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and human (10, 11).

Last updated: 2006-01-25 Contact SGD

References cited on this page View Complete Literature Guide for GND1
1) Sinha A and Maitra PK  (1992) Induction of specific enzymes of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway by glucono-delta-lactone in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Gen Microbiol 138(9):1865-73
2) Izawa S, et al.  (1998) Importance of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the adaptive response to hydrogen peroxide in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem J 330 ( Pt 2)():811-7
3) Bro C, et al.  (2004) Genome-wide transcriptional response of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with an altered redox metabolism. Biotechnol Bioeng 85(3):269-76
4) Byrne KP and Wolfe KH  (2005) The Yeast Gene Order Browser: combining curated homology and syntenic context reveals gene fate in polyploid species. Genome Res 15(10):1456-61
5) Maaheimo H, et al.  (2001) Central carbon metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae explored by biosynthetic fractional (13)C labeling of common amino acids. Eur J Biochem 268(8):2464-79
6) Palecek SP, et al.  (2002) Depression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae invasive growth on non-glucose carbon sources requires the Snf1 kinase. Mol Microbiol 45(2):453-69
7) Gorsich SW, et al.  (2006) Tolerance to furfural-induced stress is associated with pentose phosphate pathway genes ZWF1, GND1, RPE1, and TKL1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 71(3):339-49
8) Palecek SP, et al.  (2000) Genetic analysis reveals that FLO11 upregulation and cell polarization independently regulate invasive growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genetics 156(3):1005-23
9) Zhang HM, et al.  (2004) [Preliminary proteome analysis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae under different culturing conditions] Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 20(3):398-402
10) Caubet R, et al.  (1988) Comparative studies on the glycolytic and hexose monophosphate pathways in Candida parapsilosis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Arch Microbiol 149(4):324-9
11) Niehaus WG, et al.  (1995) Polyethylene sulfonate: a tight-binding inhibitor of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase of Cryptococcus neoformans. Arch Biochem Biophys 324(2):325-30